New France and France vs Britain

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Chapter 4
 2.1: Differences in imperial goals, cultures, and the North
American environments that different empires confronted
led Europeans to develop diverse patterns of colonization.
 2.1-I Seventeenth-century Spanish, French, Dutch, and
British colonizers embraced different social and economic
goals, cultural assumptions, and folkways, resulting in
varied models of colonization
 B. French and Dutch colonial efforts involved relatively few
Europeans and used trade alliances and intermarriage with
American Indians to acquire furs and other products for
export to Europe.
 Pgs. 108-111
 France: no colonization before the 1600’s
 Lots of internal problems (religious civil war) until 1600
 1608 Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec
 First settlement in New France
 1682 Robert de La Salle explored the Mississippi—
Louisiana
 1718 New Orleans founded
 2 parts, Canada and Louisiana
 Canada: Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg (all of modern-day
Canada plus the Great Lakes region of the US)
 Louisiana: New Orleans (all of modern-day central and a lot
of the western US)
 Canada: trade with Indians (Beaver)
 Louisiana: trade with Indians and grow wheat for the
French Caribbean
 Friendly relations with Native Americans
 Jesuits—tried to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism
(didn’t force them to)
 Indians incorporated into French society (somewhat)
generally not as exploited as in Spanish possessions
 Focus was on trading with Indians (contrast with
Spanish/English)
 Sparsely populated: only 60-80 thousand French settlers in
mid 1700’s (compared to 1.5 million in English colonies)
 Autocratic: no representative government, no trial by jury,
no religious toleration
 2.2 European colonization efforts in North America stimulated
intercultural contact and intensified conflict between the
various groups of colonizers and native peoples.
 A. Conflicts in Europe spread to North America, as French, Dutch,
British, and Spanish colonies allied, traded with, and armed
American Indian groups, leading to continuing political instability.
 2.2-II Clashes between European and American Indian social
and economic values caused changes in both cultures.
 A. Continuing contact with Europeans increased the flow of trade
goods and diseases into and out of native communities, stimulating
cultural and demographic changes.
 C. By supplying American Indian allies with deadlier weapons and
alcohol and by rewarding Indian military actions, Europeans helped
increase the intensity and destructiveness of American Indian
warfare.
 Pages 58, 108-109 in textbook
 European trade
 French, Dutch, English all traded with Northeastern
Native American groups
 Furs in exchange for clothing, tools, alcohol, firearms
 Significant impact on Native American culture, ways of
life
 Access to furs led to competition for territory among
Native American groups
 Native American warfare
 Different tribes allied with different European powers
 Huron, Ottawa, Abenaki, and others allied with France
 Iroquois League and others allied with British
 2.2-I Competition over resources between European rivals led to
conflict within and between North American colonial
possessions and American Indians.
 A. Conflicts in Europe spread to North America, as French, Dutch,
British, and Spanish colonies allied, traded with, and armed
American Indian groups, leading to continuing political instability.
 B. As European nations competed in North America, their colonies
focused on gaining new sources of labor and on producing and
acquiring commodities that were valued in Europe.
 C. The goals and interests of European leaders at times diverged
from those of colonial citizens, leading to growing mistrust on both
sides of the Atlantic, as settlers, especially in the English colonies,
expressed dissatisfaction over territorial settlements, frontier
defense, and other issues.
 Pgs. 111-119
 4 colonial wars fought during this time
 All pitted France (and Indian allies [Huron]) and
sometimes the Spanish vs the British (and Indian allies
[Iroquois])
 King William’s War 1689-1697
 Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713
 King George’s War 1744-1748
 French and Indian War 1754-1763
 Colonists and Indians vs colonists and Indians
 Very little/no involvement from Europe
 Sideshow of larger European conflicts
 British gained possession of the Hudson Bay, Nova
Scotia, and Newfoundland from the French
 Treaty of Utrecht 1713
 First conflict to have significant European involvement
in North America (money, soldiers)
 Colonists captured the French fortress-city of
Louisbourg, but it was returned to France following
the peace treaty (exchanged for British losses in India)
 Effects on the colonists???
 Effects on sense of American identity???
 First time a war started in North America and spread
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to Europe
Involved large amounts of European resources (money,
soldiers)
Fought over control of the Ohio River Valley (modern
pay western PA, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana,
Michigan)
Began when George Washington encountered French
soldiers near Fort Duquesne (modern-day Pittsburgh)
British and Iroquois vs French (and Spanish) and
Huron
 Albany Conference and the Albany Plan: 1754
 7 of the 13 colonies met in Albany to convince the Iroquois to
join the war
 Agreed to one commander of colonial forces (British General)
 Benjamin Franklin proposed a plan (Albany Plan) to unite the
colonies together under British rule (early version of the
United States but still British)—never adopted
 First step of the colonies working together
 Braddock’s Defeat: 1755
 Damaged the reputation of the British military in the colonies
 Gave rise to the belief that colonies could survive/win without
the Britsh
 Went badly for the British/Americans at first
 Braddock’s Defeat 1755
 French/Indian attacks on the frontier settlements 1755-
1757
 British/Americans defeated in upstate New York
 1757 New British Prime Minister (William Pitt) new
strategy
 Pay the Americans to fight (cheaper than sending all the
soldiers over from Britain)
 Don’t attack the French everywhere, just attack them in
Canada
 British successful war ends in 1763: British/Americans
Win
 Ended the war
 Effects:
 French gave all of Canada and Eastern half of Louisiana
to the British
 Spanish gave Florida to the British
 To repay the Spanish for the loss of Florida the French
gave the western half of Louisiana to the Spanish
 No more French in North America
 Wars cost money, Britain had a large amount of debt
 How do governments pay off their debts?
 Indians no longer could play the French and British
against each other—didn’t like this situation
 Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763
 Indian rebellion defeated by British but
 British stationed soldiers to protect against further
Indian attacks—cost money, led to . . .. .
 British prohibited European settlement west of the
Appalachian mountains—Proclamation of 1763
 Question: In what ways did the French and Indian War
contribute to the American Revolution?
 Financially?
 Other ways?
 American identity, examples?

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