Chapter 4 2.1: Differences in imperial goals, cultures, and the North American environments that different empires confronted led Europeans to develop diverse patterns of colonization. 2.1-I Seventeenth-century Spanish, French, Dutch, and British colonizers embraced different social and economic goals, cultural assumptions, and folkways, resulting in varied models of colonization B. French and Dutch colonial efforts involved relatively few Europeans and used trade alliances and intermarriage with American Indians to acquire furs and other products for export to Europe. Pgs. 108-111 France: no colonization before the 1600’s Lots of internal problems (religious civil war) until 1600 1608 Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec First settlement in New France 1682 Robert de La Salle explored the Mississippi— Louisiana 1718 New Orleans founded 2 parts, Canada and Louisiana Canada: Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg (all of modern-day Canada plus the Great Lakes region of the US) Louisiana: New Orleans (all of modern-day central and a lot of the western US) Canada: trade with Indians (Beaver) Louisiana: trade with Indians and grow wheat for the French Caribbean Friendly relations with Native Americans Jesuits—tried to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism (didn’t force them to) Indians incorporated into French society (somewhat) generally not as exploited as in Spanish possessions Focus was on trading with Indians (contrast with Spanish/English) Sparsely populated: only 60-80 thousand French settlers in mid 1700’s (compared to 1.5 million in English colonies) Autocratic: no representative government, no trial by jury, no religious toleration 2.2 European colonization efforts in North America stimulated intercultural contact and intensified conflict between the various groups of colonizers and native peoples. A. Conflicts in Europe spread to North America, as French, Dutch, British, and Spanish colonies allied, traded with, and armed American Indian groups, leading to continuing political instability. 2.2-II Clashes between European and American Indian social and economic values caused changes in both cultures. A. Continuing contact with Europeans increased the flow of trade goods and diseases into and out of native communities, stimulating cultural and demographic changes. C. By supplying American Indian allies with deadlier weapons and alcohol and by rewarding Indian military actions, Europeans helped increase the intensity and destructiveness of American Indian warfare. Pages 58, 108-109 in textbook European trade French, Dutch, English all traded with Northeastern Native American groups Furs in exchange for clothing, tools, alcohol, firearms Significant impact on Native American culture, ways of life Access to furs led to competition for territory among Native American groups Native American warfare Different tribes allied with different European powers Huron, Ottawa, Abenaki, and others allied with France Iroquois League and others allied with British 2.2-I Competition over resources between European rivals led to conflict within and between North American colonial possessions and American Indians. A. Conflicts in Europe spread to North America, as French, Dutch, British, and Spanish colonies allied, traded with, and armed American Indian groups, leading to continuing political instability. B. As European nations competed in North America, their colonies focused on gaining new sources of labor and on producing and acquiring commodities that were valued in Europe. C. The goals and interests of European leaders at times diverged from those of colonial citizens, leading to growing mistrust on both sides of the Atlantic, as settlers, especially in the English colonies, expressed dissatisfaction over territorial settlements, frontier defense, and other issues. Pgs. 111-119 4 colonial wars fought during this time All pitted France (and Indian allies [Huron]) and sometimes the Spanish vs the British (and Indian allies [Iroquois]) King William’s War 1689-1697 Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713 King George’s War 1744-1748 French and Indian War 1754-1763 Colonists and Indians vs colonists and Indians Very little/no involvement from Europe Sideshow of larger European conflicts British gained possession of the Hudson Bay, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland from the French Treaty of Utrecht 1713 First conflict to have significant European involvement in North America (money, soldiers) Colonists captured the French fortress-city of Louisbourg, but it was returned to France following the peace treaty (exchanged for British losses in India) Effects on the colonists??? Effects on sense of American identity??? First time a war started in North America and spread to Europe Involved large amounts of European resources (money, soldiers) Fought over control of the Ohio River Valley (modern pay western PA, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan) Began when George Washington encountered French soldiers near Fort Duquesne (modern-day Pittsburgh) British and Iroquois vs French (and Spanish) and Huron Albany Conference and the Albany Plan: 1754 7 of the 13 colonies met in Albany to convince the Iroquois to join the war Agreed to one commander of colonial forces (British General) Benjamin Franklin proposed a plan (Albany Plan) to unite the colonies together under British rule (early version of the United States but still British)—never adopted First step of the colonies working together Braddock’s Defeat: 1755 Damaged the reputation of the British military in the colonies Gave rise to the belief that colonies could survive/win without the Britsh Went badly for the British/Americans at first Braddock’s Defeat 1755 French/Indian attacks on the frontier settlements 1755- 1757 British/Americans defeated in upstate New York 1757 New British Prime Minister (William Pitt) new strategy Pay the Americans to fight (cheaper than sending all the soldiers over from Britain) Don’t attack the French everywhere, just attack them in Canada British successful war ends in 1763: British/Americans Win Ended the war Effects: French gave all of Canada and Eastern half of Louisiana to the British Spanish gave Florida to the British To repay the Spanish for the loss of Florida the French gave the western half of Louisiana to the Spanish No more French in North America Wars cost money, Britain had a large amount of debt How do governments pay off their debts? Indians no longer could play the French and British against each other—didn’t like this situation Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763 Indian rebellion defeated by British but British stationed soldiers to protect against further Indian attacks—cost money, led to . . .. . British prohibited European settlement west of the Appalachian mountains—Proclamation of 1763 Question: In what ways did the French and Indian War contribute to the American Revolution? Financially? Other ways? American identity, examples?