A comparative analysis of two City-States Mrs. Flores WHAP! Early Athens With the Emergence of early Athens: 800-400 B.C.E. Rise of Democracy during the 5th century Monarchies forced aside by the Aristocratic class: Gave rise to the Oligarchs in the early 500’s Solon: Reformer, set up laws that were written and could be revised. 510 Rebellion broke out: Cleisthenes( Aristocrat) to gain control: However instability within the aristocrats led to the rise of democracy in Athens. Athenian “Democracy” “Town meetings Only free white males assembled together make decisions that affected the polis Able to speak freely, persuade others to their opinions: Collective votes determined political actions. Emergence of the Council of 500 Citizens were chosen for a term of 1yr Responsible for making and implementing policies Democratic principles were heavily emphasized but only consisted of free white males Women and Slaves: No political Power Early Sparta 7th century B.C.E. Both Athens and Sparta were similar in many ways However, Major rebellions in and around Sparta influenced a highly Militaristic society 700’s: Spartans defeated Messenia ( City-State) 600’s Messenians challenged the Spartans: Led to the Spartans grasping a tighter control over the Military. Sparta Military Powerhouse Spartan Men Warriors Self Disciplined Rigidly obedient Emphasized Fitness for Both Men and Women. Economic Characteristics Economic Trade: Across the Aegean Timber, gold, iron, copper and tin. Coinage: Ionia Rivers :Fertile plain near the coast Greek Farmers on mainland: Depended on rainfall for their crops Poor Soil: Limited crop production Planted barley, olive trees, grape vines Sheep, Goats were raised in most areas Cattle and Horses in Northern Greece Natural Resources Building stones: Marble Clay: Pottery Very few metal deposits Significance: facilitated Trade Replaced inefficient systems of weighing gold and silver : exchange of goods. Storage of wealth more efficiant Social Distinctions: Citizens vs. Non Citizens Sparta Athens Equal in Status Urban-based Aristocracy Simple farmers Distinction between aristocracy and the commoners led to discontent and reform Gave commoners: More Rights Society was maintained by democratic principles Only Free male citizens could participate making them more equal Ironically: Divided free men vs. slaves. ( 30% of Pop made up of slaves) Spartans were simple people Frugal lifestyle: Did not accumulate possessions Houses were equally unadorned Distinctions were made by military and athletic Talent. Spartan Boys: age of 7yrs Trained in military barracks Maintained order and stability through highly organized military Trade and luxuries: seen as harmful to their purity Society maintained by Military values Divisions of labor in Athens: Personal servants, Craftsman Slaves held no political rights, nor could they serve in the army Gender Relations: Men and Women Sparta Athens Women were free and equal to Gender inequality: Clearly Defined Respectable Athenian women Confined to the home Ventured outside under the guardianship of slaves and servants Women in rural areas Had more Freedom However, Athenian women: No men Encouraged to be physical fit as men: Produce strong and healthy babies Wives did not live with husbands ( Men were often at war) Sparta: Run by Women; While men were on the war front. Women maintained the city state and household political rights, could not own property or businesses Citizens: however could not participate in government affairs Other Athenian Women ( not upper class): Particularly prostitutes Did not follow same rules and were considered lower in class distinction. Cultural Characteristics: Philosophy/Religion Religion Polytheistic Not omnipotent Carried same emotions as humans No priestly class Did not take their gods seriously Did not believe the gods controlled human destiny Emphasized : Secularism: affairs of the world Led to seeking the answers to the dilemmas of Human existence Similar to Confucianism ? Philosophy: “Love of Wisdom” Interested in the physical world Did not believe the Gods caused natural phenomena Nature or Natural law caused phenomena Socrates: 470-399 b.c.e Focused on ethical questions and truth seeking regarding human nature. Rational of Human Nature: Ability of humans to reason for themselves Convicted of” poisoning the minds of young Athenian youths” Trial of Socrates indicates the clash between traditional religious values and the emphasis on human reasoning Art: Drama, Lyric Poems, Classical Architecture Drama: 600’s in athens Representation of myths about the gods, interventions with human affairs Lyric Poetry form of musical quality of songs: Express personal feelings Architecture Greek temples Parthenon on the Acropolis Architecture: Widely adopted by the Romans Legacy: Provided the basic principles of modern architecture Greek Sculpture Reflect how they valued worth of an individual Revealed human capabilities Physically/Intellectually Depicted the concept of Beauty and Perfection Expression individualized Achievements of the Greeks during the “classical age” 500-300 b.c.e Hellenic culture: Based on the Greek term Hellas Comparative analysis WHAP Mrs. Flores Greeks vs. Persia Wars between both civilizations sparked rebellion in Ionia Darius sent troops to put down the rebellion Athens aided the Greeks in Ionia Darius sent an army to punish the mainland of Greece Battle of Marathon490 b.c.e Outcome: Greeks won! Xerxes Defeated at the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 Clash between Athens and Persia trigger the mind frame of the modern clash between the east and west ( natural enemies) Outcome of the Persian Wars Persia Athens Sparked decline of the Boosted Athens as the Premier City- Persian power. State Formed alliences with other citystates: Delian League under Pericles Offended the Spartans Attacked Sparta’s Ally Corinth Peloponnesian war ( 431 -404 b.c.e.( Athens and Sparta) Outcome: Sparta Won! Legacy: left a long lasting hostility towards each other Fueled independence and indiviuality Led to weakness and vulnerability to conquest!