Ionic vs Covalent Substance Lab

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Ionic vs Covalent Substance Lab
November 18, 2014
Scenario:
You are going to get 4 different substances and you need to be able to uncover
which ones contain covalent bonds and which ones contain ionic bonds.
Problem Question:
Which of the substances contains covalent bonds and which ones contain ionic
bonds.
Hypothesis:
Write a PREDICTION that explains what substance will show which bond
type each contains.You will need to have a separate hypothesis for each
substance.
 Substance 1 –Vegetable Oil
 Substance 2 – Salt
 Substance 3 – Sugar
 Substance 4 – Baking Soda
Materials
 Substance 1 –Vegetable Oil
 Substance 2 – Salt
 Substance 3 – Sugar
 Substance 4 – Baking Soda
 400 mL beaker
 4 test tubes
 Hot plate
 Spoon
 Stop Watch
 100 mL graduated cylinder
 Room Temperature tap water
 Goggles
Procedure
Melting Point
1. Begin by gathering 4 test tubes, a 400 mL beaker and a hot
plate.
2. Place the substances in each of the designated test tubes. (ex.
Substance 1 in test tube #1)
3. Turn the Hot Plate on to high.
4. Place all 4 test tubes into the beaker and place the beaker on
the hot plate.
5. Watch and record when each of the substances melts.
Procedure
Dissolving in Water
1. Begin by gathering a spoon, a 100 mL graduated cylinder and a
400 mL beaker.
2. In the beaker, have the teacher pour in substance #1.
3. Fill the graduated cylinder up to 100 mL with tap water and
then pour it into the beaker.
4. Begin stirring the solution in the beaker for 30 seconds and
then let it sit for 30 seconds. Record if it dissolves or not.
5. Repeat steps 1 – 4 with the remaining substances.
Ionic and Covalent Properties Table
Ionic Compounds
Covalent Compounds
Property: Melting point
High Melting Point
Low Melting Point
Test: Apply heat
Result: Won’t melt at low
heat
Result: Will melt at low heat
Property: Dissolve in water
Will dissolve in water
Will not dissolve in water
Test: Put in water
Result: Will “disappear” in
water
Result: will NOT
“disappear” in water
Property: Crystal formation
Test: ??
Will form crystals
Usually do not form crystals.
Property: Conduct electricity
Test: ??
Will conduct electricity IF melted or Will never conduct electricity
dissolved in water
Data Table
Substance
Substance #1
Vegetable Oil
Substance #2
Salt
Substance #3
Sugar
Substance #4
Baking Soda
Melting Point
(High or Low)
Dissolves in Water
(Yes or No)
Get Materials and
Begin Working
Answers
Substance
Substance #1
Vegetable oil
Substance #2
Salt
Substance #3
Sugar
Substance #4
Baking Soda
Melting Point
(High or Low)
Dissolves in Water
(Yes or No)
Low
No
High
Yes
Low
No
High
Yes
Claims Evidence and Reasoning
 Write a paragraph explaining your results. Be sure to include
the following in your paragraph:
What your claim was for each substance.
1.
1.
Which type of bond held the atoms of each substance together.
Evidence to support or refute your claim.
2.
1.
Use your observations. (Both numbers and senses)
Reasoning
3.
1.
Explanation of what you saw happen. (Explain data and use science to
explain what you know about compounds, elements, and bonding)
Answers
Covalent
 Vegetable Oil
 Sugar
Ionic
 Salt
 Baking Soda

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