Imperialism vs. Isolationism By: Kaitlin Propeck and Mack Pierson Per. 6 Imperialism -Imperialism is the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories. America Claims an Empire -Americans began to warm to the idea of expansion over seas due to three reasons: -Desire for military strength -Thirst for new markets -Belief in cultural superiority Desire for Military Strength * -Alfred T. Mahan of the U.S. Navy urged government officials to build up American naval power. -United States built nine steel-hulled cruisers between 1883 and 1890. -World’s third largest naval power Thirst for New Markets * -Advances in technology allowed farms and factories to produce more than Americans could consume. -United States needed raw materials for its factories and new markets for its agricultural and manufactured goods. -Foreign trade is the solution! Belief in Cultural Superiority -Some Americans believed in a racial superiority of the Anglo-Saxons. -Some believed the United States had a responsibility to spread Christianity and “civilization” to the world’s “inferior peoples.” Alaska * - William Seward, Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson, arranged for the U.S. to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 billion dollars in 1867. - Seward had trouble persuading the House of Representatives to acquire funding. - Alaska did not become a state until 1959. - It was then discovered that Alaska was rich in timber, minerals, and oil. Hawaii * -The United States took over the Midway islands in 1867. -In 1887, the United States built a naval base at the kingdom’s best port, Pearl Harbor. -American business groups organized a revolution with the marines and overthrew the queen. -They set up a new government headed by Sanford B. Dole. Hawaii -President Cleveland did not support the revolution and ordered that the queen be returned to the throne. -Dole refused to surrender so Cleveland recognized the Republic of Hawaii but refused to annex the nation unless a majority of Hawaiians favored it. -In 1897, William Mckinley succeeded Cleveland as president and he favored annexation. -Congress proclaimed Hawaii an American territory on August 12, 1898. -Hawaii became the 50th state in 1959. Spanish-American War * -At the end of the Spanish-American War, the U.S. gained much more territory thus expanding its empire. -After much fighting, the United States and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris which gave Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S. It also freed Cuba and the Philippines was sold to the U.S. for $20 million dollars. The Philippines * -Much controversy arose because of the U.S. annexing the Philippines. -Many people did not believe the U.S. had the right to do so. -President Mckinley tried to justify the annexation by stating that they were going to Christianize the Filipinos; however, they had already been Christian for centuries. Philippine-American War * -Filipinos were outraged by the Treaty of Paris and the U.S. annexation of the Philippines. -In February 1899, the Filipinos revolted. -The war lasted for nearly 3 years and cost 4000 American lives and $400 million dollars. -The United States then set up a government where the president elected a governor and members of the upper house legislature. -The Philippines gained independence on July 4, 1946. Puerto Rico * -After the U.S. acquired Puerto Rico in the Treaty of Paris, many Puerto Ricans hoped for independence. -Puerto Rico was ruled by the U.S. military until 1900. -In 1900, Congress passed the Foraker Act which ended military rule and set up a civil government. -In 1917, Puerto Ricans were given the right to become U.S. citizens. Cuba * -Although Cuba became free after the Spanish-American war, American troops continued to occupy the territory. -In 1901, the U.S. insisted that Cuba adopt the Platt Amendment which stated that the U.S. reserved the right to intervene in Cuba, Cuba was not to go into debt, the United States could buy or lease land for naval stations, and Cuba could not make treaties that might limit its independence. -Cuba then became a U.S. protectorate, a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power. China * -U.S. imperialists saw the Philippines as a gateway to the rest of Asia, especially China. -China was potentially a vast market for American products. -China became known as the “sick man of Asia.” -France, Germany, Russia, Britain, and Japan set up settlements along the coast of China. -U.S. began to fear American traders would be shut out Open Door Notes * -U.S. Secretary of State, John Hay, wanted to protect American interests so he issued a series of policy statements called the Open Door Notes. -The notes were letters addressed to leaders of imperialist nations proposing that the nations share their trading rights with the United States. -Thus, no single nation would have a monopoly on trade with any one part of China. Protecting American Rights - The Open Door Policy reflected American beliefs about the United States industrialist capitalist economy. - Americans believed that: - The growth of the economy depended on exports. - The U.S. had a right to intervene abroad to keep foreign markets open. - The closing of an area to American products or people threatened U.S. survival. Panama * -The United States wanted to build a canal that cut through Central America to reduce travel time between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. -The U.S. bought the French company’s route for $40 million dollars in 1903. -The United States began negotiations with Colombia, the ruler of Panama, to build the canal. -Panamanians started a rebellion against Colombia and then 15 days later, signed a treaty with the U.S. which gave the United States a region called the Canal Zone for $10 million dollars plus an annual payment of $250,000 dollars. Mexico * - In 1911, Mexican workers and peasants overthrew their military dictator. - After 2 years, a new government was established, but President Wilson refused to recognize it. - After this incident with U.S. citizens, President Wilson sent in Marines to occupy Veracruz. - The Huerta Regime collapsed and a new government was formed under Venustiano Carranza. - This government was accepted by the U.S. Mexico* -A rebel group formed under a man named Francisco “Pancho” Villa. -Villa also killed many Americans in his raids which led the U.S. to seek revenge. -President Wilson sent 15,000 troops into Mexico to capture Villa. -Eventually the troops caught up with Villa’s men and created fighting with deaths on both sides. -The countries were on the brink of war but both eventually backed down. -This U.S. intervention provides us with a clear example of American imperialist attitudes of the time. Rationale for Imperialism -By 1900, the U.S. had gained a substantial empire and President McKinley, who was a confirmed imperialist, was reelected. -However, some people such as Grover Cleveland and Andrew Carnegie did not support imperialism. They believed it was wrong for the United States to rule other people without their consent. -Although some disagreed, many others agreed with imperialism because it helped American to grow in size and thus become a stronger world power. Isolationism -Isolationism is the policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs and economic entanglements with other countries. World War 1 * -At the beginning of World War 1, the U.S. declared neutrality and took a strict noninvolvement stance on the war. Rationale for Isolationism -The rationale for isolationism was that it kept America safe and out of conflict. -It stemmed from fear of outsiders and the harm that they could do to America. -Isolationism ensured America’s safety and kept it from being dragged into wars and entanglements that did not directly affect the nation. Review Questions -What is imperialism? -What is isolationism? -What were Open Door Notes? -What was the Treaty of Paris? -Why did Americans want to expand overseas? - Why did Alaska prove to be important? - What caused the Philippine-American war? Work Cited Danzer, Gerald A., Jorge J. Klor De Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, and Nancy Woloch. The Americans. California ed. Evanston: McDougal Littell, 2003. Print. Reconstruction to the 21st Century.