Frank Shallenberger AAO 2014 Workshop – No Disease Ever

Report
Third Congress, March 2014
No Disease – Ever!
Unlocking The Power of Oxygen
Frank Shallenberger, MD, HMD
Carson City, NV
“The world belongs to
the energetic.”
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Essayist & poet (1803 - 1882)
Resources
• Bursting With Energy
• The Type 2 Diabetes Breakthrough
• The Principles and Applications of
Ozone Therapy
• www.antiagingmedicine.com
No Disease-Ever!
• Oxygen is the most important nutrient that we
take in. But just because we take it in does not
mean that we are using it efficiently.
• Oxygen Utilization (OU) is the term I coined to
refer to how efficiently our body processes
oxygen.
• The most important factor determining your risk
of disease and rate of aging is oxygen utilization.
• I have patented and developed a system for
measuring oxygen utilization which I have been
using for over ten years.
No Disease-Ever!
• In that time I have not seen one case of cancer
or any other disease in a person with optimal
oxygen utilization.
• Nor have I ever seen any disease develop in a
person with optimal oxygen utilization no
matter what their age.
• This is a fantastic observation, and suggests
that anyone who is able to maintain optimum
oxygen utilization during their lifetime will be
immune to disease across the board.
Measuring Oxygen Utilization
• FDA approved pulmonary gas analyzer.
• Computer driven exercise ergometer.
• Computer software to sort and analyze
the breath by breath data.
• Test takes about 45 minutes.
• Completely safe
• Athletes – VO2 max
Bio-Energy Testing®
• A software system uses the data to calculate
oxygen utilization based upon how much
oxygen is consumed and how much carbon
dioxide is produced at rest and during exercise.
• Oxygen Utilization is a function of how much
oxygen is consumed relative to carbon dioxide
produced.
• Other measurements: Metabolic Rate, Fat
Burning Rate, Resting Fat Metabolism, Heart
Function, Lung Function, Functional Strength,
Exercise Data, Diet Data.
The Cost of Being Sick
• Boston Globe: “Retired couples may need $240,000
for health care”. By Mark Jewell. The Associated
Press, May 9, 2012
• “Couples who retire this year can expect to spend
an average of $240,000 on out-of-pocket medical
expenses before they die.”
• Life expectancy of 85 for women and 82 for men.
• These expenses are above and beyond what
Medicare and insurance pays.
• And they don’t take into account dental expenses
or long term care which could easily add up to
thousands more.
The Cost of Being Well
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Testing, Supplements, and hormones = $135/month
Exercise = $2000 lifetime
Food = $0.00
Detoxification = $1000/year
Circulation - $200/year
$2,820/year per person
$56,400 per woman and 47,940 per man
Total = $104,340
Can It Really Be Done?
• There are an estimated 80,000 people in the
United States who are more than 100 years
old.
• Virtually all of these people have been
completely free of disease all their lives.
• I have patients in their 80’s who have the
oxygen utilization of 35 year olds.
Can It Really Be Done?
• Because of genetics, not everyone will be able
to have optimal oxygen utilization.
• But everyone is able to significantly decrease
their risk by improving their oxygen utilization.
• In an ideal world everyone would have their
oxygen utilization measured every 1-2 years.
• This lecture will summarize what needs to be
done in order to optimize oxygen utilization
Mitochondrial Facts
• Metabolically active cells contain thousands of
mitochondria, which make up ∼40% of the
entire cell. There are said to be 10 million
billion mitochondria in an adult human (i.e.
∼10% of our body weight).
• Mitochondria are not static. According to how
you live and the balance of your hormones
they are in constant movement within cells,
and are constantly changing in size, number
and mass.
Mitochondrial Facts
• Mitochondria divide during mitosis, providing
daughter cells with a normal complement of
mitochondria. Mitochondria also proliferate
during weight training and aerobic exercise.
• The number of mitochondria is controlled by
T3, which specifically induces mitochondrial
division
• You get your mitochondria from your mom.
Mitochondrial Facts
• Genetic forms of obesity including diabetes
have defective mitochondrial activity.
• This defect leads to a higher ratio of weight
gain to food intake.
• Experimental evidence indicates that
increasing mitochondrial activity in these
patients will cure them.
Oxygen Utilization
Fat
Oxygen
Lungs
Heart
Circulation
Glucose
OU
E
Free
Radicals
Hormones, Nutrients, Toxins, Stress
Organ Function
Elimination
Hormones
Senses
Oxygen
Utilization
Digestion
Repair
Thoughts
Reproduction
What Is Health?
•
•
•
•
Not the absence of symptoms.
Not the absence of disease.
Not the absence of abnormal tests.
Not the absence of anything – health
is the presence of something –
Optimum Oxygen Utilization.
Every single aspect of healthy living
exerts its effects by improving
oxygen utilization
Decreased oxygen utilization
only happens in old folks, right?
WRONG!
It commonly starts in young,
otherwise healthy people.
Published in Townsend Letter
• 50 Subjects: Randomly selected as they
presented to the clinics, 20-40 y/o,
asymptomatic, “health conscious”, Carson City,
Los Angeles, Grand Junction, and Singapore.
• 54% (27) had normal oxygen utilization.
• 46% (23) had decreased oxygen utilization.
Published in Townsend Letter
• 36% (18) had < 90% of predicted oxygen
utilization.
• 26% (13) had < 80% of predicted oxygen
utilization.
• 12% (6) had < 60% of predicted oxygen
utilization, and fell within the diagnostic
category of severe dysfunction.
Outline
1. Aging and the diseases of aging are caused primarily
by decreased oxygen utilization.
2. Decreased oxygen utilization leads to the excessive
free radicals that result in accelerated aging and
disease.
3. Decreased oxygen utilization is a unifyng principle. It
is caused by many factors.
4. Decreased oxygen utilization exerts its negative
effects by decreasing the NAD/NADH ratio.
5. The key to health is to maximize oxygen utilization by
eliminating or decreasing the effect of these factors.
1. Aging and the diseases of aging
are caused primarily by decreased
oxygen utilization
Oxygen – The Forgotten Nutrient
• The most critical nutrient.
• It’s not what you take in, it’s what you
utilize.
• The difference between you at 20 and
you at 70 is your level of oxygen
utilization.
Aging and Oxygen Utilization
Nothing is as consistent and as predictable as
the gradual, linear decline in oxygen utilization
seen in all aging populations. It starts early!
Meta-analysis of the age associated decline
in maximal aerobic capacity in men:
relation to training status.
• Wilson & Tanaka, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ.
Physiol. Vol. 278: 829-834, 2000
• “Maximal aerobic capacity is an independent
risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cognitive
dysfunction, and all cause mortality.”
• Even highly trained marathon runners show a
decrease in oxygen utilization with age. Unlike
all of the other parameters of aging, it cannot
be trained away.
Premature ageing in mice expressing defective
mitochondrial DNA polymerase.
Trifunovic A, Wredenberg A, et al.
Nature. 2004 May 27;429(6990):417-23.
• Mice are genetically altered to develop defective
oxygen utilization over their lifespan.
• Significantly reduced lifespan.
• Premature onset of age-related disorders such as
lean body mass loss, alopecia, kyphosis, anemia,
osteoporosis, reduced fertility, and cardiomegaly.
• “These results provide a causative link between
decreased oxygen utilization and aging.”
Uncoupled and surviving: individual mice with high
metabolism have greater mitochondrial uncoupling
and live longer.
Speakman JR, Talbot DA, et al.
Aging Cell. 2004 Jun;3(3):87-95.
• Examined a group of mice and measured their
resting oxygen utilization. Then they simply
noted how long they lived.
• All mice were treated the same. The only
differences were their natural genetic differences
in oxygen utilization.
• Mice in the top 25% of oxygen utilization lived
36% longer than mice in the low 25%.
Oxygen Utilization and Disease
• Varanasi SS, Francis RM, et al. Mitochondrial
DNA deletion associated oxidative stress and
severe male osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int.
1999;10(2):143-9.
• Liang FQ, Godley BF. Oxidative stress-induced
mitochondrial DNA damage in human retinal
pigment epithelial cells: a possible mechanism
for RPE aging and age-related macular
degeneration. Exp Eye Res. 2003
Apr;76(4):397-403.
Oxygen Utilization and Disease
• Patwari P, Lee RT. Thioredoxins, mitochondria,
and hypertension. Am J Pathol. 2007
Mar;170(3):805-8.
• Eerola E, Pulkki K, et al. Abnormal
mitochondria in cultured synovial fibroblasts
in rheumatoid and reactive arthritis? Br J
Rheumatol. 1988;27 Suppl 2:128-31.
Oxygen Utilization and Disease
• Modica-Napolitano JS, Kulawiec M, et al.
Mitochondria and human cancer. Curr Mol
Med. 2007 Feb;7(1):121-31.
• Gerbitz KD, Gempel K, Brdiczka D.
Mitochondria and diabetes. Genetic,
biochemical, and clinical implications of the
cellular energy circuit. Diabetes. 1996
Feb;45(2):113-26.
Oxygen Utilization and Disease
• Biskup S, Moore DJ. Detrimental deletions:
mitochondria, aging and Parkinson's
disease.Bioessays. 2006 Oct;28(10):963-7.
• Moreira PI, Cardoso SM, et al. The key role of
mitochondria in Alzheimer's disease. J
Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Jul;9(2):101-10.
Oxygen Utilization and Disease
• Tsutsui H. Oxidative stress in heart failure: the
role of mitochondria.
Intern Med. 2001 Dec;40(12):1177-82.
• Marin-Garcia J, Goldenthal MJ. Heart
mitochondria signaling pathways: appraisal of
an emerging field. J Mol Med. 2004
Sep;82(9):565-78
2. Decreased oxygen
utilization leads to the
excessive free radicals that
result in accelerated aging
and disease.
Hypoxia
• Generates excessive free radicals.
• Deprives cells of vital functions
including repair mechanisms,
membrane polarization, and enzyme
synthesis. This includes the synthesis
of anti-oxidant enzymes.
• Destroys mitochondria.
“Functional Hypoxia”
Decreased Oxygen Utilization
Is The
Metabolic Equivalent
of
Hypoxia
Free Radical Damage is Caused By
“Excessive” Radical Activity Secondary to
Decreased Oxygen Utilization
“Decreased oxygen utilization is toxic to the cell
by exacerbating free radical generation in
membranes housing electron transfer
assemblies.”
Antioxidant Adaptation
Levine & Kidd
• Decreased oxygen utilization accelerates free
radical formation, while exhausting antioxidant buffering capacity.
Decreased
Oxygen
Utilization
Decreased
Free
Radical
Buffering
Increased
Free
Radical
Formation
Mitochondrial
Decay
Aging
Degenerative
Disease
“Oxidative Damage and Mitochondrial
Decay in Aging.” Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM, Ames BN
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
Vol. 91, 10771-78, Nov. 1994
• “Oxidants generated by mitochondria appear to be
the major source of oxidative lesions that
accumulate with age.”
• “These lesions cause the age related deficits in
mitochondrial function which are associated with
the generalized physiological decline known as
aging.”
• These oxidative lesions are caused by reduced
oxygen utilization.
Are Free Radicals Bad?
“The essential requirement for
superoxide radical and nitric oxide
formation for physiological
functioning and healthy aging”
Linnane AW, Kios M, Vitetta L.
Mitochondrion, 2007, Vol. 7, Nos. 1-2
“Contrary to the dogma that superoxide anion and hydrogen
peroxide formation are highly deleterious to cell function and
healthy aging, we suggest this premise is flawed. Superoxide
anion and hydrogen peroxide formation are essential to
normal cellular function. Superoxide anion and nitric oxide
play an intrinsic role in the regulated ordered turnover of
proteins, rather than randomly cause protein damage and
inactivation. The proposition that metabolic free radical
formation is unequivocally deleterious to cell function is
rebutted. The concept that a dietary supplement of high
concentrations of small-molecule anti-oxidants is a
prophylactic/amelioration therapy for the aging process and
age associated diseases is questioned as to its clinical
validity.”
“Oxidative Damage and Mitochondrial
MK, Hagen TM, Ames BN
Decay in Aging.” Shigenaga Proc.
Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
Vol. 91, 10771-78, Nov. 1994
• “Oxidants generated by mitochondria appear to
be the major source of oxidative lesions that
accumulate with age.”
• “These lesions cause the age related deficits in
mitochondrial function which are associated
with the generalized physiological decline
known as aging.”
• These oxidative lesions are caused by reduced
oxygen utilization.
“As I see it every day you do one of two
things: build health or produce disease in
yourself.”
Adelle Davis
Author and nutritional pioneer
3. Decreased oxygen utilization is
caused by: Diet, Hormonal
Deficiencies, Nutritional
Deficiencies, Smoking, Drugs,
Toxins, Decreased Circulation,
Decreased Lung Function,
Inflammation, Stress, Decreased
Fitness
Diet
•
•
•
•
•
Carbs!!!!
GMO?
Low Fiber
Processed foods
Excessive calories
Hormone Deficiencies
•
•
•
•
Testosterone
Estrogen
Progesterone
Melatonin
•
•
•
•
Thyroid
DHEA
Hydrocortisone
Growth hormone
Diagnosing Hormone Deficiency
• Clinical suspicion: age, the signs and
symptoms of each hormone deficiency.
• Clinical trial.
• Laboratory is usually only useful to monitor
therapy: establish baselines and prevent
excess.
Take Home Message
Although replacing deficient hormones will make
you feel better, that is not the most important
reason to replace them. The most important
reason why you need to replace your hormones
as they become deficient is because through the
process of remodeling, hormones will keep your
body young and functional.
The Reality Of Hormone Replacement.
• Next to exercise and diet, replacing deficient
hormones is the most effective way to slow
down the aging process, and prevent the
diseases of aging. It’s dangerous not to take
hormones if your body needs them.
• Replacing deficient hormones is just as safe as
replacing deficient vitamins, minerals, or other
molecules that your body depends on.
Nutritional Deficiencies
• It’s not what you eat, it’s what you
absorb and utilize.
• Genetic differences
• The aging effect
• Very few people of all ages don’t
require some supplements.
Toxins
• We make them – acid, intestinal
toxins
• We live in them – heavy metals
• We are prescribed them – drugs
• We enjoy them – smoking
• Measurement
• Detoxification
“One of the first duties of the physician is
to educate the masses not to take
medicine.”
Sir William Osler
Physician (1849 – 1919)
Considered to be the father of modern medicine
References
• Neustadt J, Pieczenik SR. Medicationinduced mitochondrial damage and disease.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Jul;52(7):780-8.
• Drug-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction by
James A. Dykens and Yvonne Will (Sep 22,
2008) ISBN-10: 0470111313
Drug-Induced Mitochondrial
Dysfunction: An Emerging Model for
Idiosyncratic Drug Toxicity
James A. Dykens
Pfizer Drug Safety Research & Development,
Sandwich, England
Mitochondrial Impairment of Drugs
Receiving Black Box Warnings
CNS
Amphetamines
Atomoxetin
Droperidol
Pergolide
Dantrolene
Divalproex
Felbamate
Naltrexone
Nefazodone
ValproicAcid
Alper’s
Cholestrol Meds
All of them!
Antivirals
Abacavir
Didanosine
Emtricitabine
Entecavir
Emtricitabine
Lamivudine
Nevirapine
Telbivudine
Tenofovir
Tipranavir
Stavudine
Zalcitabine
Zidovudine
Diabetes
Anti-depressants & Pioglitazone
Anti-Psycholtics
Rosiglitazone
Too many to list!
Metformin
Anti-Cancer
Flutamide
Dacarbazine
Gemtuzumab
Methotrexate
Pentostatin
Tamoxifen
Daunorubicin
Doxorubicin
Epirubicin
Idarubicin
Arsenic Trioxide
Cetuximab
Denileukin
Mitoxantron
Anaesthetic
Bupivacaine
Propofol
Antiarhythmic
Amiodarone (oral)
Disopyramide
Dofetilide
Ibutilide
Hypertension
Bosentan
Beta-Blocker]
Atenolol
Antibiotics
Isoniazid
Ketoconazole
Streptozocin
Trovafloxacin
Tetracycline
NSAIDs
Celecoxib
Diclofenac
Diflunisal
Etodolac
Fenoprofen
Ibuprofen
Indomethacin
Ketoprofen
Mefenamic acid
Meloxicam
Naproxen
Nabumetone
Oxaprozin
Piroxicam
Salsalate
Sulindac
Thioridazine
Tolmetin
Decreased Circulation
• Atherosclerosis
• Nitric oxide – vegetables and
exercise
• Blood pressure
• Decreased fitness
• Inflammation
Decreased Lung Function
• Routine measurement in Bio-Energy
Testing
• The single most predicable event in
aging is a decline in lung function.
• Asthma, allergies, infections
• Interval training
• Nebulized remedies
Inflammation
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dark Field Blood Examination
Allergies
Adrenal insufficiency
Detoxification
Chronic infections
Anti-inflammatory nutrition
Stress
• Pain
• Thoughts. IE. Belief Systems
• Lifestyle. IE. Stimulants, rest/sleep, sugar,
alcohol
• Drugs/meds
• Neurotransmitters
• Adrenal exhaustion – Hans Selye: it’s not
the stress per se, it’s how your body holds
up under the stress.
Decreased Fitness
• Number 1! How many times have you heard
of someone at any age who was in top
physical condition and was diagnosed with a
degenerative disease?
• Can only be determined with oxygen
utilization testing.
• Interval training
• Properly done – 60 minutes per week.
“I am still determined to be cheerful and
happy, in whatever situation I may be;
for I have also learned from experience
that the greater part of our happiness or
misery depends upon our dispositions,
and not upon our circumstances.”
Martha Washington
The first first lady(1732 - 1802)
Decreased Oxygen Utilization
Fat
Glucose
X
X
Oxygen
Lungs
Heart
Circulation
X
X
T3, Cortisol, DHEA, Nutrients, Toxins
X
E
Free
Radicals
Take Home Message
The most effective way to
maximize the effects of ozone
therapy is to combine it with
other therapies aimed at
eliminating the causes of
decreased oxygen utilization
4. Decreased oxygen utilization
exerts its negative effects by
decreasing the NAD/NADH ratio.
Decreased OU = Decreased NAD/NADH ratio
+
Fat
Stores
T3
Epin
Insulin
+
Glucose
NAD
-
NADH
Aminos
+
Triglyc.
Pyruvate
PDH (Lipoic, B1)
Cortisol
A-CoA
Carnitine
NAD
Lungs
Circulation
Coagulation
2,3 DPG
antacids
Hyperventilation
Cardiolipin
(Lipoic/carnitine)
ATP + Lactate
NAD
+
NADH
Fatty
acids
Liver
NADH
CO2
3O2+NADH
Free
Radicals
Krebs
Cycle
CO2
ADP
POOL
Ketones
B2, B3, B6, B12,
Folic, TMG, Mg,
Catabolic &
Anabolic hormones
NAD +2H2O + ATP
TFA’s, CoQ10, B12, folic,
Heavy metals, “uncouplers”
The
Optimum
NAD/NADH Ratio
is
700/1
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a
metabolic regulator of transcription, longevity
Lin SJ, Guarente L.
and disease
Current Opinion in Cell Biology
2003, 15:241–246
• “NAD has emerged as a putative metabolic regulator of
transcription, longevity and several age-associated
diseases, including diabetes, cancer and
neurodegenerative diseases.”
• “Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to decrease
the incidence or delay the onset of some of these
diseases.”
• “Studies in yeast suggest that CR functions by
increasing the NAD level and/or the NAD/NADH ratio.”
NAD and Cell Signaling
• NAD is rate limiting for the reactions involved
in cell signaling and the control of many cell
processes in the cell nucleus, including DNA
repair, apoptosis, and telomere maintenance.
• Another function of NAD in cell signaling is as
a precursor of cyclic ADP-ribose, which
regulates intracellular calcium channels.
NAD and Sirtuins
• Sir stands for Silent Information Regulator genes. Sir2 is
short for Silent mating type Information Regulatior-2.
• Sirtuins are hypothesized to play a key role in an
organism's response to stresses (such as heat or
starvation) and to be responsible for the lifespanextending effects of calorie restriction.
• Sirtuins regulate nuclear transcription. These activities
of sirtuins are particularly interesting because of their
importance in the regulation of aging.
• Sirtuins are NAD-dependent.
It’s All About The NAD/NADH Ratio
• Oxygen does not directly catalyze cellular
reactions. It indirectly catalyzes them using
NAD.
• When NAD catalyzes a reaction, it is converted
to NADH.
• Oxygen then recycles the NADH back to NAD.
• The problem with decreased oxygen utilization
is that is results in decreased levels of NAD
combined with increased levels of NADH.
It’s All About The NAD/NADH Ratio
• As the NAD/NADH ratio decreases, all cellular
activity slows down.
• Less NADH is produced in the Krebs Cycle.
• The decrease in NADH further decreases the
ratio because there is no NADH for oxygen to
react with and form NAD.
• The decreasing NAD/NADH ratio spirals
downward in a vicious cycle. We call this aging.
• NAD/NADH reactions are reversed in order to
normalize the ratio.
The Cost of Reversing
NAD/NADH Reactions
•
•
•
•
•
Increased lactic acidosis – 19 times!
Decreased apoptosis leading to cancer.
Increased protein catabolism.
Increased intra-cellular free radical stress.
Increased extracellular free radical stress via
PMOR (plasma membrane oxidoreductase)
system.
• The genesis of all chronic disease!
Optimizing Oxygen Utilization
is
About Optimizing
the
NAD/NADH Ratio
to
700/1
It Happens Locally
• Chronic localized pain is caused by localized areas
of chronically decreased oxygen utilization.
• Vicious cycle starts with trauma or infection.
• Edema, inflammation, hyper-coagulation, and
endothelial damage lead to a further localized
decrease in oxygen utilization.
• Decreased oxygen utilization disables the healing
mechanisms, and condition becomes chronic
resulting in permanent edema, inflammation,
hyper-coagulation, endothelial damage, and pain.
5. The key to health is to maximize
oxygen utilization by
eliminating or decreasing the effect
of these factors, and by therapies
focussed on oxidizing
NADH to NAD.
Oxygenations vs. Oxidation
• Oxygen is electron stable and hence does not
oxidize. It does not directly oxidize NADH.
• Oxygenation simply supplies more oxygen to
the tissue.
• Oxidation therapies: interval intense exercise,
ozone, IV hydrogen peroxide.
• Ozone is electron deficient. It acts completely
different than oxygen in tissue.
Ozone therapy (interval intense
exercise and IV hydrogen peroxide)
is effective for so many diseases
including the infirmities of aging
because it normalizes the
NAD/NADH ratio.
Ozone Forms Peroxides
• Reacts ionically with • Ozonides are stable
double bonds to
for days to weeks,
produce peroxides
easily penetrate cell
called ozonides.
membranes, and are
selectively reactive.
• Most ozonides are
formed from the short • Once in the cells,
chained lipids in cell
these ozonides
membranes.
oxidize NADH to NAD.
• Not identified.
Ozone Corrects The NAD/NADH Ratio
• Ozone therapy, by oxidizing NADH to
NAD corrects the ratio and thus
improves oxygen utilization by
stimulating increasing levels of NADH:
Ozonide + NADH = H2O + NAD + O2
• Oxidation therapies are enhanced with
the addition of niacin, riboflavin,
MethylB12, B6, folic acid (MTHF?), oral
NADH.
The Stages Of The Aging Process
VO2
Max
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
Max
OU
Anaerobic
Glucose
Anaerobic
Glucose
Max
ATP
Fat
Glucose
Fat
Glucose
Fat
Healthy
Fat
Asymptomatic
Functional symptoms
“Healthy for your age”
Fat
Mito-Decay
&
Disease
Mitochondrial rate of decay is determined by one
thing: oxygen utilization. So the better your
oxygen utilization, the longer and better your life
will be.
• Your starting point is predetermined and fixed.
• What is not inevitable is the rate of decay.
• Mitochondrial rate of decay is determined by
one thing: oxygen utilization, which is the same
thing as your NAD/NADH ratio.
• So the better your oxygen utilization, the longer
and better your life will be.
• If you are sick, your NAD/NADH ratio is
decreased. This can be reversed.
In Summary
• Through the process of oxygen utilization, oxygen
is converted to water plus energy (NAD and ATP).
• Oxygen is also converted to free radicals
(superoxide anion, nitric oxide) which are
essential to cellular function.
• Even when oxygen utilization is optimally
efficient some free radical damage to the
mitochondria inevitably occurs as a result of this
process. So, the longer you are alive, the more
damage your mitochondria will have
accumulated.
In Summary
• As oxygen utilization losses efficiency, the rate of
free radical damage escalates, and ultimately leads
to mitochondrial decay.
• Accumulating mitochondrial decay is the central
lesion in the aging process and in degenerative
disease. It’s why you can’t live forever.
• Your risk for premature aging and degenerative
disease is determined by your starting point
(mitochondrial genetics) and your rate of
mitochondrial decay.
• Your starting point is predetermined and fixed.
What is not inevitable is the rate of decay.

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