The main idea
of Chemistry
matter-anything that takes up space and has
mass-the measure of the amount of matter an
object contains
property-the characteristics of matter and; how
it behaves
element-a substance that cannot be broken down
into a simpler substance
compound-a chemical combination of two or more
different elements joined together in a fixed
formula-a combination of chemical symbols that
show what elements make up a compound and the
number of atoms of each
qualitative-an observation made without
quantitative-an observation made with
physical change-a change in matter where its
identity does not change
physical property-a characteristic of matter that
is exhibited without a change of identity
chemical change-the change of one or more
substances into a different substances
chemical property-a characteristic of matter that
is exhibited with a change of identity
solution- a mixture that is the same throughout,
or homogeneous
solute-a substance that is being dissolved
when a solution
solvent-the substance that dissolves the solute
when making a solution
Law of Conservation of Mass
atoms don't just appear
atomes don't just disappear
in a physical or chemical change matter is
neither created nor destroyed
also called the law of conservation or matter
The capacity to do work
endothermic-chemical reaction
that absorbs heat energy
exothermic-chemical reaction
that gives off heat energy
Chemical vs
change in
• Know all the vocab
• the law of conservation of mass
• the difference between physical and
chemical properties
Chapter 2 and 3.1
by: Ariel Gonzalez, Danielle Rabe,
Matt Nickolescu
2.1 vocab
atom- smallest part of anything
atomic theory- idea that everything is made
of small pieces
atomic number- how many positively
charged particles are in the center of an
mass number- number of neutral and
positively charged particles in the center of
an atom
2.2 vocab
electromagnetic spectrum- all types of
electrical radiation
electron cloud- space outside of the center
where negative particles are found
valence electron- a negatively charged
particle in the last energy level of an atom
lewis dot diagram- a drawing of dots around
an element symbol
3.1 vocab
periodicity- when something happens over
and over
periodic law- the law that physical and
chemical properties re-occur when the
atomic number increases
electronegativity- how much power an atom
uses to attract negatively charged particles
2.1 Review
I. Early ideas
- greek philososphers thought that important
elements where air, water, earth, and fire.
II. Development of the modern atomic theory,
conservation of matter
- French chemist, Antoine Lavoisier, came up
with the law of conservation of matter by
sealing a container of 2g of hydrogen and
16g of oxygen which gave 18g of water
III. Daltons atomic theory
- all matter is made up of atoms
- atoms are indestructible and cannot be
divided into smaller particles (false)
- all atoms in one element are exactly alike,
but they are different from other atoms
IV. Discovery of the atomic structure
- everyone thought that the atom was a solid
- JJ. thomson discovered electrons
a.used cathode-ray tube and turned on a
light that and placed a magnet towards it
which pushed the ray away.
V. Rutherford's gold foil experiment
- He shot a ray of light towards gold foil and
some of the particles went through some shot
back and others deflected in other directions
- Discovered that the atom has space around
the nucleus with electrons orbiting around the
VI. Atomic number
- Is how many protons and neutrons are in an
- Found above the element symbol
VII. Atomic mass
- How much an atom weighs
- Only measures the mass of protons and
neutrons (electrons don't weigh as much)
2.2 Review
I. Electron movement
- As we learned in the previous section atoms
are mostly empty space that is occupied by
- Considering that electrons are negative and
that an atom's nucleus contains positively
charged protons, why arent the electrons
pulled into the nucleus and held there?
Neils Bohr, a danish scientist who worked with
rutherford, proposed that electrons have enough
energy to keep them in constant motion around
the nucleus
The model based on this theory was called the
planetary model because the electrons behaved
like planets in orbit of the sun
II. The electromagnetic spectrum
- Waves transfer energy and are produced
when something vibrates back and forth
- Electromagnetic waves have the same
characteristics as mechanical waves
- There are different types of waves
- Each wave is identified by its wavelength or
the distance between the corresponding
points on two consecutive waves
Electromagnetic Spectrum
III. Energy levels
- Electrons are found on different energy
levels as they orbit around the nucleus
- Electrons absorb energy and move to
higher energy levels
- When electrons move down one energy
level they release energy
- Energy levels are S, P, D, F
3.1 Review
I. Search for a periodic table
- copper, silver & gold are all coinage metals
- lithium, sodium, & potassium are all alkaline
- chlorine, bromine, & iodine are all halogens
II. Mendeleev's table
- Elements in horizontal rows first displayed
similar properties
- Elements in vertical columns are similar
- He came up with the theory of periodicity
and the modern periodic table
III. Modern periodic table
- Transition elements occupy center of the
periodic table
- Noble gases fill column 18 and have 8
valence electrons
- The Elements in the periodic table are
arranged by atomic # and not atomic mass
- Atomic number is the amount of protons in
the nucleus
- Each period (horizontal row) begins with a
metal and ends with a nobel gas, with the
exception of period 1
Atoms are mostly made up of empty space
Atoms consist of a nucleus made of protons and neutrons with orbiting
Electrons are in constant motion around the nucleus similar to planets
orbiting the sun, and exist on different energy levels
There are many types of electromagnetic waves; they each have different
Each period on the periodic table has different properties for the elements
but they have an increasing periodicity
The old periodic table displayed horizontal rows all with similarities and the
modern table has similarities in the vertical columns called groups
3.2, 7.2, 8.1
Tony Delgado and Kelly
3.1 Vocab
Period- horizontal row on the periodic table
Group- consists of the elements in a vertical
Noble Gases- full complement of valence
Metals- have luster, conduct heat and
electricity, and usually bends without
3.1 Review
Relationship of the periodic table to atomic
elements are arranged according to the atomic
if elements are ordered in the periodic table by
atomic number, then they are ordered according
to the number of electrons they have.
only 2 electrons can occupy the 1st energy level
in an atom.
groups are numbered from left to right.
7.2 vocab
Inner Transition Metals- the 2nd row beneath
the main body of the periodic table are
lanthanides. (atomic # 58-71) and the
actinides (atomic # 90-103). These 2 series
are called "itm" because their last electron
occupies inner-level 4f orbitals in the 6th
period and the 5f orbitals in the 7th period
7.2 Review
Patterns of Atomic Structure
electrons occupy energy levels by filling
the lowest level first and continuing to
higher energy levels in numerical order.
valence electrons of the main group
elements occupy the S and P orbitals of
the outermost energy level.
Orbitals; s,p,d,f
7.2 Review Continued
The Size of Orbitals
Group 1 elements each have single
valence electrons in an S orbital.
3 orbitals differ from another, as you move
down the column, the energy of the
outermost sublevel increases the higher
energy, the farther the outermost
electrons are from the nucleus.
Orbital Diagram
8.1 Vocab
Alkali Metals- group 1 elements- Lithium(Li),
Sodium(Na), Potassium(K), Rubidium(Rb),
Cesium(Cs), Francium(F Sr).oft, silvery-white
metals. Good conductors of heat and
Alkaline Earth Metals- group 2 elementsBeryllium(Be), Magnesium(Mg), Calcium(Ca),
Strontium(Sr), Barium(Ba), Radium(Ra). They
are denser and harder and have a high
melting point.
Halogens- Fluorine(F), Chlorine(Cl),
8.1 Review
Ionic Size
determines how ions behave in solutions
and the structures of solid ionic
The outermost electrons of the ion are in a
lower energy level than the valence
electrons of the neutral atom.
Nuclear charge doesn't increase with the #
of electrons.
Periodic tables are being used all the time by
chemists, its already reference on
information about the element, make
predictions and plan experiments based on
those predictions. The Periodic Table is
divided into blocks that show the sublevels
and orbitals occupied by the electrons of
the atoms.
Octet rule- atoms can be stable by having 8
electrons in outer layer
Ion- atom or group of combined atoms that has
a charge due to gain or loss of an electron
Ionic compound- a compound composed of
Ionic bond- a strong attraction between ions of
opposite charge
Covalent bond- the attraction of 2 atoms for a
shared pair of electrons
Ch 4 Vocabulary (pg 2)
Covalent compound- a compound whose
atoms held together by covalent bonds
Electrolyte- any compound that conducts
electricity when heated or melted or dissolved
in water.
- salt is the most popular food additive
-chemist refer to it as sodium chloride (NaCl)
- salt occurs naturally underground and is
dissolved in the worlds ocean
- carbon dioxide is a colorless gas partially in
the air
- you exhale 100 times more CO2 than the air
you breathe in
- like salt CO2 is stable
- plants use CO2 in photosynthesis
- in the reaction of elements, the collision of
atoms determine what kind of compound will
be formed
- the nucleus is compared to the atom's
electron cloud is very small
- electron arrangement determines chemical
- elements of vertical groups on the periodic
table have like arrangements of valence
- atoms combine because it increases stability
of the atom
- the octet rule states that atoms can be stable
if they have 8 electrons in their outer cloud
Binary compound - compound containing 2
Oxidation number - charge of the ion
Polyatomic ion - group of atoms covalently
Distillation - method of separating substances
through evaporation
Organic compound - compounds containing
Hydrocarbon - more complex organic
- ionic compounds are made of oppositely
charged ions held together strongly in
organized units
- the ions in which they are made of will
determine the properties they have
- binary ionic compounds can contain more
than one ion from each element but not
composed of 3 or more elements
- to name a binary ionic compound write the
name of the positively charged ion (usually a
metal) then add the name of the negatively
- molecular substances have covalent bonds
rather than ionic bonds
- usually molecular substances have lower
melting points and most are not as hard as
ionic compounds
- the properties of molecular substances are
different enough that their differences can be
used to classify the elements and separate
Electronegativity - the ability of atoms in a
bond to attract electrons
Polar covalent bond - the bond that forms
when electrons are not shared equally
Conductivity - how easily electrons can move
through a material to make an electric current
Polar molecule - a molecule that has a
positive and negative pole
-atoms are often more stable when bonded in
-chemical bonding share electrons
-electronegativity decreases as you go down
the columns in the periodic table, while it
increases as you go across the rows
-when electrons are shared, if they're unequal
they're polar. like batteries
-water molecule as a whole has a positive and
negative pole
-water is an example of molecular geometry
and how it acts together to affect the
properties of compounds
-CO2 has strong polar covalent bonds, its a
nonpolar molecule
- there are many types of compounds covalent,
and ionic.
- ionic bonds are stronger than covalent bonds
- molecular substances are covalent bonds
rather than ionic
- molecular substances are different enough
that you can separate them and classify them
- atoms are more stable in compounds
- octet rule states when atoms have 8 electrons
in their outer cloud they are stable
Chapter 6
By: Melissa, Haillie, Elizabeth
Vocab you need to know
Synthesis: the name applied to a reaction in
which 2 or more substances combine to form a
single product.
3rd grade:sugar + lemon juice=lemonade
Combustion: a substance rapidly combines with
oxygen to form 1 or more oxides.
3rd grade:1 + air we breathe= more
Single Displacement: 1 element takes the place
of another in a compound.
3rd grade: the rabbit takes the spot of the bunny.
continued vocab
Double Displacement:Type of reaction where the
positive and negative portions of 2 ionic
compound are interchanged; at least 1 product
must be water or a precipitate.
3rd grade: + & at least water
Product:When reactants undergo a chemical
change, each new substance is formed.
3rd grade:if paper were to burn into ash
continued vocab
Reactant:A substance that undergoes a
3rd grade: cookie dough cooking until it is a
crisp cookie
Decomposition:Compound breaks down into 2
or more simpler substance.
3rd grade: a cookie breaking into crumbs.
Continued vocab
Equilibrium:No net change occurs in the
amount of reactants and products.
3rd grade:no change
Reversible reaction:When a reaction
completely changes its direction
3rd grade: East to West, or North to South.
Chemical Equations
Reactant:A substance that undergoes a
Product:When reactants undergo a chemical
change,each new substance i formed.
Word equations are a way of writing chemical
changes, just in all words no numbers.
(same thing as chemical)
Balancing Equations
C + O2 = CO2
Coefficient: Placed in front to indicate how many
units are involved.
~To write an equation~
1) Analyze: write names of reactant, draw arrow,
then write name.
2) Setup: replace with chemical formulas, add
symbols to represent physical state of each
Continued Balancing Equations
3)Solve: count # of atoms on each side of
4)Check: make a final check on all of your
Example: C (1 carbon atom) + O2 (1 oxygen
molecule)--->CO2 (1 molecule
All about Reactions
Decomposition:A compound breaks down into 2
or more simpler substances.
There are many different types of reactions, you
can classify them by the patterns that occur in
them. Also, you can determine exactly what
elements make up the substances that react &
Continued Reactions
~Recognizing Chemical Reactions~
-Color change
-Odor changes
-Gas release
-Energy changes
*These are only a few ways to recognize a
chemical reaction!
Reversible/Rate of Reaction
Equilibrium: no net change occurs in the
amount of reactants & products.
Activation Energy:Amount of energy the
particles must have when they collide.
Dynamic equilibrium: opposite actions are
taking place at the same rate.
-Many reactions can change direction (base on
energy flow)
-In equilibrium reactants never fully used up
because they are constantly being formed
from products (like passangers getting on/off
a subway train.)
Reversible/Rate of Reaction
*To determine how fast a reaction is taking
place,you can measure how quickly one of
the reactants disappears or how fast one of
the products appears.
*The rate of reaction is important to a chemical
engineer designing a process to get a good
yield of product.
So..the faster the rate-->more product that can
be made in a fixed amount of time. (which
helps food not to spoil).
~4 Major factors affect this rate~
1)Activation energy
2)Speed of reaction
3)effect of temperature..most reactions are
faster at higher temperature
4)Matter on concentration.
Chemical Equations: Equation word+same thing.
You can determine exactly what elements make
up the substances that react and form.
Balancing Equations: To write an
equation..analyze, set up,solve, then check.
Coefficient: Placed in front to indicate how many
units are involved. * Atoms do NOT change in a
chemical reaction, they just rearrange!
Continued conclusion
Reactions: Many different types, can classify by
pattern. Synthesis-The name applied to a
reaction in which 2 or more substances
combine to form a single product.
Decomposition-Compound breaks down into 2
or more simpler substance.
Single Displacement-1 element takes the place
of another in a compound.
Double Displacement-Positive and negative of
2 ionic compounds are interchanged; at least
1 product must be water.
Reversible/Rate of Reactions: Most reactions
can change direction, eventually
reactants/products form at same rate.
~4 Major factors affect this rate...activation
energy, speed of reactions, effect of
temperature, and its matter of concentration.
Chapter 10
Chris Tomlin
Darex Nabong
Important Vocabulary
Absolute Zero:
The lowest temperature theoretically possible, at
which the motion of particles that constitutes heat would be minimal.
Amorphous Material:
A material that lacks the long-range atomic
periodicity that is characteristic of a crystalline solid.
Condensation: Water that collects as droplets on a cold surface when
humid air is in contact with it.
Important Vocabulary
Diffusion:Movement of a fluid from an area of higher concentration to
an area of lower concentration. Diffusion is a result of the kinetic properties
of particles of matter
Evaporation: The process by which molecules undergo the a
spontaneous transition from the liquid phase to the gas phase.
Freezing Point: The temperature at which a liquid changes to a
The settling of particles or sediment onto a surface
Important Vocabulary
Boiling Point: The temperature at which a liquid boils
and turns to
Melting Point:The temperature at which a given solid will
Important Vocabulary
Solid:State of matter characterized by particles arranged such that their
shape and volume are relatively stable.
Liquid:The particles in a liquid are free to flow, so while a liquid has a
definite volume, it does not have a definite shape.
Gas:Consisting of particles that have neither a defined volume nor
defined shape.
Important Vocabulary
Sublimation:A change directly from the solid to the
gaseous state without becoming liquid.
Pressure:Pressure is a measure of the force applied
over a unit area.
Kinetic Theory of Matter
A theory that matter consists of small
particles in rapid random motion
The energy of moving objects is called
Kinetic Theory
States of Matter
The three most common States of Matter
consists of:
Solid: Definite shape
Liquid:Definite volume but an indefinite shape.
Gas: No definite volume or shape.
States of matter
Changing of State
Evaporation: is the process by which particles of a liquid
form a gas by escaping from the surface.
Sublimation: The process by which particles of a solid
escape from its surface and form a gas.
Condensation: Gaseous particles come closer together
and form a liquid.
Temperature and Particle Motion
Kinetic theory
According to the kinetic theory, the temperature of a
material is a measure of the average kinetic energy of
the particles in the material.
The kinetic theory of matter explains the properties of
solids, liquids, and gases, and explains changes of
states in terms of interparticle forces and energy. It also
quantitatively relates the pressure, volume, and
temperature of gases. By studying how gases behave
under different conditions, you will soon begin to
understand how all matter behaves.
By: Dan Mateos, Maritza Figueiras, Tyler
Important Vocabulary
Stoichiometry- measure amounts of substances in chemical reactions and relate them
to one another.
3rd Grade Def- amounts of ingredients in chemical reactions
Mole- Unit of measurement to count numbers of atoms, molecules, or molarity.
3rd- unit of measurement
Avogadro constant- 6.022x10^23
3rd- method of finding molecules or atoms in one mole.
Important Vocabulary
Molar mass-mass of 1 mole, of pure substance.
3rd- unit of measurement that takes up space.
Molecular mass-of a covalent compound is the mass
in atomic mass units of 1 molecule.
3rd-unit of measurement of 1 molecule.
Formula mass- ionic compound is the mass in atomic mass
in atomic mass units of 1 formula unit.
3rd-find the mass of 1 formula unit.
Important Vocabulary
molar volume- of a gas is a volume that a mole of gas occupies at a pressure of
1 atmosphere and temperature of 0.0 degrees Celsius.
3rd Grade Def-the amount of space that gas occupies at 0 degrees celsius.
Ideal Gas Law- PV=nRT finds volume, pressure, temperature,
and number of moles of gas.
3rd Grade Def- helps finds the space or the substance that occupies a 3-D
Molecule A
Molecule B
Avogrados #
6.022 x 10^23
Molec/ mole
Grams A
Mole A
Avogrado's #
6.022 x 10^23
Molec/ mole
Molar Ratio: mole/mole
Molar Volume
Liters Compound A
Mole B
Molar Volume
Liters Compound B
Grams B
example #1
74.55 mol KCl
1 gKCl
Step one: draw your train tracks
Step two: write in the equation with the corresponding units
Step three: since we are looking for the mole of 25gKCl, we must find the elements in the periodic table and add their
atomic mass.
Step four: add their atomic mass and place it next to >mol KCl<
Step five: write >g KCl< at the bottom of >mol KCl<
Step six: cancel out >g KCl< and multiply 25gKCl by 74.55 molKCl.
Step seven: write the answer DO NOT FORGET TO WRITE THE UNITS!!
Molar Mass
The equation CO2(g) + 3H2(g) ------> CH3OH(g) + H2O(g), this equation
relates molecules, not masses, of reactants and products.
Molar mass of an Element: The atomic mass unit is defined so that the atomic
mass of an atom of the most common carbon isotope is exactly 12 u, and
the mass is 1 mole of the most common isotope of carbon atoms is exactly
12 g. Molar mass is the mass in grams of the average atomic mass.
Example, oxygen exists as molecules composed of two oxygen atoms, so a
mole of oxygen molecules contains 2 mol of oxygen atoms, so the
molecules are twice the molar mass of oxygen atoms (2x16.00g=32.00g).
Molar mass of a compound: Covalent compounds are composed of molecules,
ionic are composed of formula units. A covalent compounds molar mass is
the mass in grams of 1 mol of its molecule. Ionic compounds molar mass is
the mass in grams of 1 mole of its formula units.
Ideal Gas Law
Solving an equation: The value of the constant R can be determined using the
definition of molar volume. At STP 1 mol of gas occupies 22.4L. Therefore,
when P=101.3 kPa, V= 22.4L, n=1 mol, and T= 273 k
equation: 101.3kPa x 2.4L=1 mole x R x 273 k
Solving for R.
101.3 kPa
22.4 L
8.31 kPa x L
1 mole
273 k
mol x k
You can now find the volume, temperature, pressure, and number of moles of a
In this chapter you learn about stoichiometry,
molar mass, and the ideal gas law.
Stoichiometry measures amounts of
substances in chemical reactions and relate
them to one another( Train tracks). Also you
learn about molar mass of compounds, molar
mass of an element and what they are.
Another thing this chapter is about is the ideal
gas law which is pv=nrt. You use this to find
volume, pressure, temperature, and number
of moles of a gas.
It's solutions
Chapter 13
By: Emily Ferguson
Leticia MartinezWalden
A. Solutions and their properties
1.Water is a universal solvent,and is hard to keep pure because it is an
excellent solvent for numerous solutes
Ex.1) Tea, kool aid, sugar, salt
2.There is also a measurement on how much solute you put in the water,
scientist use the terms concentrated or diluted to express how much is
a.concentrated- for it being strong
b.Dilute- for it being weak
C. specific terms
1. Unsaturated
2. Saturated
3. Supersaturated
A. unsaturated
1. If the amount of solute dissolved is less than the maximum that could be dissolved
a. The oceans of earth are examples of unsaturated saltwater solutions.
A. Saturated
1. A solution that holds the maximum amount of solute.
2. Of an organic compound containing no double or triple bonds
3.Having each single bond attached to an atom or group
4. of an inorganic compound having no free valence electrons
A. supersaturated
1. A solute that contains more solute than
the usual maximum amount and is unstable
a. they cannot permanently hold the excess solute and may release
2. supersaturated solutions have to be prepared carefully
a.Generally done by dissolving the solute at an elevated temperature,
then slowly cooling the solution
Ex.1) Fudge
1.Molarity equation
a.Molarity = mole of solute/liter of
2.Molarity Equations
Freezing and Boiling Point
A. Freezing point / boiling point (Depression/ Elevation)
1. Freezing point - Depression
a. Any Aqueous solution that will have a freezing point below >0
degree celsius
b. The change in freezing temperature depends on concentration
Ex.1) Salt is used to melt ice on the sidewalk
c. Ionic solutes create a greater depression
2. Boiling Point Elevation
a. Any solution (Aq) having a boiling point greater than 100 degree
b. The solute must be volatile
3. Antifreeze
a. anti freeze can be used as a coolant and "Antifreeze." It raises
boiling point and also lowers freezing point
Like Dissolves Like
A. like dissolves like
1. Repent: water is universal solvent
2. Water is polar, meaning it has particle
charged ends
Ex.1)Water and sugar have polar
molecules, and sugar dissolves in water
1.oil and water do not mix oil just floats, but oils mixed with oils generally stay
A. Osmosis
1. permeable- cell membranes that allow certain material to be able to pass
through them
2. Just like gas particles, Liquid molecules have a tendency to diffuse from a
high concentration to a lower concentration
Ex.1) Vegetables that are sprayed daily have water in them already
mixed with sugars and salts, because of the solutes the pure water will
diffuse in the vegetable
Summary Slide
A. Water
1. Solubility- Being the strength of
2.Solutions- molarity solving molarity solutions
Formula: Mole of solute/ liter of solution
3. Boiling point/ Freezing point- How solutions increase or decrease the
freezing point and boiling points
4. Osmosis- how water moves from a higher concentration to a lower
Acid: is something that is sour and burns
(ex.. vinegar and lemon juice)
Base: a bitter water
(ex.. milk, soap, and bleach)
Ionization: it is when ions make a close bond
PH scale: scale that shows if a substance is an acid or base
(ex.. 0-6 Acid, 7 neutral, and 8-14 base
Strong acid/base completely mixed with small bit of water
Weak acid/base completely mixed with a lot of water
Salt the mixture of an acid and a base
Ionic equation the math used for ions
Neutralization reaction when an acid and a base stop from reacting
Salt the mixture of an acid and a base
Ionic equation the math used for ions
Neutralization reaction when an acid and a
base stop from reacting
Buffer is a solution that won't change
Titration shows if it is an acid or a base
Standard Solution is the most you can mix
the solution with
Acids are commonly known by their sour
taste, acids also reacts with bases.
Bases are known by their bitter taste and
slippery feel.
the way you can test for a acid or base is by
using lithium.
If you mix acid with water it makes covalent
All acids and bases do not ionize or
dissociate to the same extent. This leads to
the statement that acids and bases are not
all of equal strength H and OH ions and no
The terms "strong" and "weak" give the
indication of the strength of a an acid or
When an acid and base are placed together,
they react to neutralize the acid and base
properties, producing a salt.
The combination of hydrochloric acid and
sodium hydroxide produces common table
HCl+NaOH-> H20+NaCl
Acids and Bases are used in so many ways
like in soap and drinks.
You can use Acids in covalent compounds.
Salts are made of Acids and Bases.
Acids and Bases can be identified by using
The pH scale goes from 0 to 14.
Chapter 18
Organic Chemistry
By: Marc Paran and Oskar Woloch
Important Vocabulary
Hydrocarbon- an organic compound that
consists of only hydrogen and carbon
Saturated Hydrocarbon- A hydrogen with all the
carbon atoms connected to each other by
single bonds
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon- A hydrocarbon that
has one or more double or triple bonds
between carbon atoms
Important Vocab
Alkane- Single bonded hydrocarbons
Alkene- Double bonded hydrocarbons
Alkyne- Triple bonded hydrocarbons
Important Vocabulary
Monomer- monomers are the building blocks of
more complex molecules called polymers
Polymer- Large molecule that consists of many
smaller repeating units which are usually
joined by covalent bonds
Important Vocabulary
Thermoplastic- Some plastics will harden and
soften repeatedly as they are heated and
Thermosetting- Other plastics hardened
permanently when molded, because they are
set permanently in the shape they form
Alkanes- Single bonds, Saturated hydrocarbon,
Highly combustible
suffix -ane
Hydrocarbons Continued
Alkenes- Double bonds, Unsaturated hydrocarbon
suffix -ene
Hydrocarbons Continued
Alkynes- Triple bonds,Unsaturated
suffix -yne
Molecular Formula
Carbonyl and Amino group
Carbonyl Group: a functional
group composed of a carbon atom doublebonded to an oxygen atom
Amino Group: a functional group
composed of a hydrocarbon bonded
to a nitrogen atom and two
hydrogen atoms.
The 6 functional groups
Alcohol- formula
suffix- ol
Carboxylic Acidformula- (RCOOH)
suffix- oic acid
The 6 functional groups continued
Ketoneformula- (RCOR')
suffix- one
Aldehydeformula- (RCHO)
suffix- al
6 functional groups cont.
Esterformula- (RCOOR')
Etherformula- (ROR')
Amine and Amide
Amine- Amino group(-NH2)
Properties: organic compounds, very polar,
and they have high boiling points
Amine and Amide
Amide- Carbonyl group bonded to an amino
Properties: neutral compounds, high boiling
and melting point.
Ketone and Aldehyde
Ketone- carbonyl group(-CO) bonded with two
Properties- very reactive, distinctive odors
Uses- Solvents, manufacture of plastic and
adhesives also flavorings( vanilla, cinnamon
and almond flavoring)
Ketone and Aldehyde
Aldehyde- functional group- hydrocarbon
bonded w/ a carbonyl group and a hydrogen
Properties- distinctive smell, very reactive
Uses- Formaldehyde can be used to
preserve dead animals. Benzaldehyde is an
almond extract.
Hydrocarbon: saturated, and unsaturated
Alkanes,Alkenes, and Alkynes
Carbonyl and Amino group
The 6 Functional groups
Chapter 21
Taylor Smith, Shannon McElwee
Period 3
Radioactivity:The spontaneous emission of
radiation by an unstable atomic nucleus.
Half Life: The time it takes for half of a given
radioactive isotope to decay (into a different
isotope or element)
Fusion: The process in which two or more nuclei
combine to form to larger nucleus.
Fission: The process in which atomic nucleus
splits into two or more large fragments.
Alpha Radiation: A helium nucleus consisting of
two protons and two neutrons.
Beta Radiation: A high-energy electron with a
1- charge.
Gamma Radiation: A high-energy form of
radiation with no
charge and no mass.
Transmutation: The process of changing from
one form, substance, nature, or state to
Geiger Counter: Measures the amount of
radioactive energy.
Henri Becquerel discovered that
when Uranium is exposed to sunlight
and then placed on a photographic plate,
it releases the energy it absorbed from the sun through xrays.
Pierre and Marie Curie began
experimenting with their own
radioactive elements. They
came up with the term "radioactivity".
Both Becquerel and the Curie's
won several Nobel Prizes.
Types of Radiation
Alpha Radiation (alpha a)
- Can be stopped by paper or skin
- Don't eat or inhale
- Don't travel very far or penetrate very deep
Beta Radiation
- Electrons don't have much mass
- More penetration
- Stopped by wood
Gamma Radiation
-No mass or electrical charge
-Extremely penetrating
Half Life
- Half life of Carbon-14 is 5,730 years.
- Carbon-14 is used to determine the ages
of fossils
y = 100(½)x
x represents the interval between half lives
y = the current amount
If a radioactive substance has a half life of 1 day, and there is 100 grams of this
to find the amount in 1 day
o current amount= (starting amount)(½)(days passed)
o current amount= 100(½)¹ = 50 grams
to find the amount in 2 days
o current amount = (100)(½)2 = 25 grams
to find the amount in 5 days
Discovered by Henri
Bequerel (1896) and The
Curies (1898).
Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation (weakest to
Radioactivity comes from many different sources.
For human use, radiation is used in medicine,
academics, and industry, along with generating
It's also used in fields such as agriculture, archaeology
(carbon dating), space exploration, law enforcement
and geology (including mining).

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