Document

Report
Moving From Feedback
to Feedforward
Writing With Integrity 2013
Poynter Institute
Erin Goergen, Teri Trede, Floyd Butz IV
What is Feedback?
“Feedback is an objective description
of a student’s performance intended to
guide future performance.”
~W. Fred Miser
Why Do We Give Feedback?
• “Effective feedback, however, shows where we
are in relationship to the objectives and what we
need to do to get there.
• “It helps our students see the assignments and
tasks we give them as opportunities to learn and
grow rather than as assaults on their selfconcept.
• “And, effective feedback allows us to tap into a
powerful means of not only helping students
learn, but helping them get better at learning.”
~ Robyn R. Jackson
Effective, Formative Feedback is:
•
•
•
•
Timely
Constructive/Corrective
Specific
Focused on the product, not on
the student
• Understood by the student
Feedback Types
Motivational Feedback
• Feel good
• Encourage and support
• Little guidance on how to
improve
Evaluative Feedback
• Measure achievement
with a grade
• Summarize achievements
• Little guidance on how to
improve
• Example: “I like how you
completed the
assignment”
• Example: “Your score is
73%
Feedback Types
Descriptive Feedback
• Specific improvement steps
given
• Specific guidance on how
to improve
• Example: “You reported on
the size of plants in each
treatment. Now you need
to divide that number by
the total number of seeds
to get the growth rate.”
Effective Descriptive
Feedback
• Internalized feedback
• Intended to increase
independent thinking
• Example: “I agree with
your interpretation of the
data; however, I am not
convinced that the
response is due to your
treatment. How could you
clarify the connection?”
Feedback Types
Motivational
Evaluative
Feedback is
primarily
motivational
Feedback is
primarily
evaluative
Purpose: to
encourage and
support the
learner
Purpose: to
measure student
achievement with
a score or a grade
Summative
Descriptive
Effective
Feedback
primarily tells the
student how to
correct their
reasoning.
Feedback asks the
student what to do
to move their
reasoning to the
next level.
Purpose: to
improve learning
by indicating to
the student what
needs to be
improved
Purpose: to
improve learning,
by moving student
reasoning to the
next level
Formative
What About “Good Job?”
• Supportive, but non-specific.
• Does not improve the learner’s skills and
performance.
• Example: Surgery students tying knots
were given compliments vs. specific
feedback.
– Compliment group was more satisfied.
– Feedback group had improved performance.
Boehler M, Rogers DA et al. Medical Education 2006;
40:746-749
Effective Feedback Can Also
Be Provided By Students!
• Students can keep track of their own
performance
– Use self assessments
• Teach students how to give feedback
– Use peer feedback
• Schartel S. A., Giving feedback- An integral part of education. Best
Practices & Research clinical Anesthesiology. 2012 (26): 77-87.
Student Buy in
How do we work with students so they
can see the value in feedback?
• Is it clear?
• Does it relate to goals and standards
the students don’t understand?
• Is feedback given too late?
• Is feedback applicable to their studies?
• ...does it feed forward?
What Would You Do?
Your laboratory students are required to
turn in lab reports after each new lab.
One of your students turns in their lab
report promptly, and consistently every
week. However, each week the same
errors are repeated. What feedback
would you provide to this student?
Moving From Feedback to
Feedforward
(Beaumont
et al 2008)
References
•
Beaumont, C., O'Doherty, M., & Shannon, L. F. (2008). Staff and student
perceptions of feedback quality in the context of widening participation. York:
Higher Education Academy.
•
Boehler, M., & Rogers, D. A. (2006). Medical Education, 40, 746-749.
•
Miser, W. F. (n.d.). Giving effective feedback. Retrieved from http://www.rscope.ca/websitepublisher/downloads/Giving%20Effective%20Feedback.pdf
•
Schartel, S. A. (2012). Giving feedback - an integral part of education. Best
Practices & Research Clinical Anesthesiology, 26, 77-87.

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