Moving From Feedback to Feedforward Writing With Integrity 2013 Poynter Institute Erin Goergen, Teri Trede, Floyd Butz IV What is Feedback? “Feedback is an objective description of a student’s performance intended to guide future performance.” ~W. Fred Miser Why Do We Give Feedback? • “Effective feedback, however, shows where we are in relationship to the objectives and what we need to do to get there. • “It helps our students see the assignments and tasks we give them as opportunities to learn and grow rather than as assaults on their selfconcept. • “And, effective feedback allows us to tap into a powerful means of not only helping students learn, but helping them get better at learning.” ~ Robyn R. Jackson Effective, Formative Feedback is: • • • • Timely Constructive/Corrective Specific Focused on the product, not on the student • Understood by the student Feedback Types Motivational Feedback • Feel good • Encourage and support • Little guidance on how to improve Evaluative Feedback • Measure achievement with a grade • Summarize achievements • Little guidance on how to improve • Example: “I like how you completed the assignment” • Example: “Your score is 73% Feedback Types Descriptive Feedback • Specific improvement steps given • Specific guidance on how to improve • Example: “You reported on the size of plants in each treatment. Now you need to divide that number by the total number of seeds to get the growth rate.” Effective Descriptive Feedback • Internalized feedback • Intended to increase independent thinking • Example: “I agree with your interpretation of the data; however, I am not convinced that the response is due to your treatment. How could you clarify the connection?” Feedback Types Motivational Evaluative Feedback is primarily motivational Feedback is primarily evaluative Purpose: to encourage and support the learner Purpose: to measure student achievement with a score or a grade Summative Descriptive Effective Feedback primarily tells the student how to correct their reasoning. Feedback asks the student what to do to move their reasoning to the next level. Purpose: to improve learning by indicating to the student what needs to be improved Purpose: to improve learning, by moving student reasoning to the next level Formative What About “Good Job?” • Supportive, but non-specific. • Does not improve the learner’s skills and performance. • Example: Surgery students tying knots were given compliments vs. specific feedback. – Compliment group was more satisfied. – Feedback group had improved performance. Boehler M, Rogers DA et al. Medical Education 2006; 40:746-749 Effective Feedback Can Also Be Provided By Students! • Students can keep track of their own performance – Use self assessments • Teach students how to give feedback – Use peer feedback • Schartel S. A., Giving feedback- An integral part of education. Best Practices & Research clinical Anesthesiology. 2012 (26): 77-87. Student Buy in How do we work with students so they can see the value in feedback? • Is it clear? • Does it relate to goals and standards the students don’t understand? • Is feedback given too late? • Is feedback applicable to their studies? • ...does it feed forward? What Would You Do? Your laboratory students are required to turn in lab reports after each new lab. One of your students turns in their lab report promptly, and consistently every week. However, each week the same errors are repeated. What feedback would you provide to this student? Moving From Feedback to Feedforward (Beaumont et al 2008) References • Beaumont, C., O'Doherty, M., & Shannon, L. F. (2008). Staff and student perceptions of feedback quality in the context of widening participation. York: Higher Education Academy. • Boehler, M., & Rogers, D. A. (2006). Medical Education, 40, 746-749. • Miser, W. F. (n.d.). Giving effective feedback. Retrieved from http://www.rscope.ca/websitepublisher/downloads/Giving%20Effective%20Feedback.pdf • Schartel, S. A. (2012). Giving feedback - an integral part of education. Best Practices & Research Clinical Anesthesiology, 26, 77-87.