[] Chapter 9 – East Asia

Report
GEOG 101 – World Regional Geography
Professor: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
Chapter 9 – East Asia
A – The East Asian Realm
B – China
C – Jakota
A The East Asian Realm
■ Major issues
• World’s most populous realm.
• One of the world’s earliest culture hearths.
• Political and economic forces continue to transform traditional
cultural landscapes.
• Intensifying regional disparities.
• Population concentrations in the east, situated in river basins.
• Political geography reveals instability.
The East Asian Realm
■ Context
• The tale of two giants (China and Japan) and a divided neighbor (Korea).
• Demographic giant: China.
• Economic giant: Japan.
• Mongoloid race.
• Also considered as the “Chinese Realm” and the “Japanese Realm”:
• Korea being a “zone of interaction” between China and Japan.
• Definition came after WWII.
• Chinese culture area:
• Mother civilization.
• Japanese and Korean cultures strongly influenced by China.
• East of the Himalayan mountains.
■ Foreign influence
• Both were not influenced from the outside until late 19th century.
• China was forced to open Treaty Ports (Hong Kong, Shanghai, Tianjin, etc.).
• Japan remained closed but reformed with foreign technology.
The East Asian Realm
Mongolia
N. Korea
China
Himalayas
and Tibetan Plateau
Hunan
Plateau
S. Korea
Coastal
Plains
Guangdong
Plains
South
China Sea
Japan
Taiwan
Pacific Ocean
Hong Kong
0
250
500
1,000 Miles
The East Asian Realm
■ Physical landforms
• One of the most rugged topography in the world.
• Complex landforms created by tectonic activity.
• Limited flat land:
•
•
•
•
Relative to the population.
Creation of space for agriculture.
Terracing and irrigation.
Maximize agricultural productivity.
• Himalayas:
• Indian plate hitting the East Asian plate.
• Started 50 million years ago.
• Contains the highest mountains in the world.
The East Asian Realm
■ Political Issues
• Korea and its re-unification.
• China and Taiwan.
• The South China Sea.
■ Economic Issues
• Growth and development.
• Huge imbalances in the regional distribution of wealth.
• Between countries.
• Within countries (China).
• Food supply.
• Resources hungry China and Japan.
The East Asian Realm
■ Demographic issues
• Overpopulation.
• Urbanization and migration (China):
• Moving from a rural to an industrial society.
• Massive movements from the countryside to cities.
• Missing female population.
■ Environmental issues
• Strong focus on development.
• Air quality (urban and regional):
• 16 of the world’s 20 most polluted cities are in China.
• Access to water (depletion of river systems and aquifers).
• Depletion of natural resources.
B China
■ Geography
• A factor of unity as well as
diversity.
• 3rd largest country in the world.
• Comparable surface with Europe
and the United States:
China
• U.S.: 3.6 million square miles.
• China: 3.7 million square miles.
0
250
500
1,000
1,500
United States
Miles
2,000
• It is a lot but not enough.
• 65% of the country mountainous.
• Arable land represents 12% of the
national territory as opposed to
25% for the United States.
• Per capita (0.086 hectare) is well
below the world average.
China
China
United States
Size
3.7 million square miles
3.6 million square miles
Main physical barrier
Himalayas
Rockies
Main River
Yangtze / East - West
Mississippi / North –
South
Population
East Coast
East Coast
Connectivity problems
North - South
East - West
China
■ 1- Huang He (Yellow River).
4
• Can carry up to 40% sediment
weight (highest in the world).
• Subject to flooding, especially in
its delta.
• Changed course many times.
■ 2- Chang Jiang (Yangtze).
1
2
• Longest river, China’s main street
(6,300 km).
• Flood of 1998 left 14 million
homeless.
■ 3- Pearl River delta system
3
• Most productive and sustainable
ecosystem in the world.
• Rice paddies and fish ponds.
■ 4- Heilong Jiang (Amur).
• China's border with Russia.
China
Maritime border
Physical border
Turkic
■ The Chinese Realm
Cultural border
Arid China Mongols
Gobi
Takla Makan
Koreas
Highland China
Tibetan
Political border
Tai
Miao-Yao
Han
Taiwan
• East sea border.
• West: Deserts and
mountains.
• North: Deserts.
• South: Himalayas.
• Cultural division between the
Han realm and the China of
the minorities.
• Han China represents 92%
of the population.
• Dominantly live in
mountainous or arid
regions.
• Geopolitical division:
• Russia.
• South Korea.
• Taiwan.
China
■ Agricultural diversity
Pasture and
oasis
Wheat Dominant
Rice Dominant
Double-crop rice
• North: continental climate
growing wheat, sorghum and
corn.
• South: subtropical climate
growing rice.
• A China of the West with
pastoralism and oasis
agriculture.
• China feeds approximately
25% of the world’s population
with approximately 7% of the
world’s arable land.
China
■ The three Chinas
■ The Coast
Exports
• Forefront of modernization.
• Political and economic center.
• Rich, urbanized and open to
the world.
Population
West
Centre
Coast
Surface
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
■ The Center
80%
Coast
West
Center
• Agricultural and demographic
hearth.
• Poor and rural China.
■ The West
• Sparsely populated.
• Region of minorities.
• Most mineral resources.
China
■ Contrasts
Command
Market
Openness
Isolation
Wheat
Rural
Urban
Rice
• Authoritarian Government /
Opening of the Economy.
• Inward-Looking History /
Outward-Looking Future.
• Rural Interior / Urbanizing Coast.
• Wheat Growing North / Rice
Growing South.
• Hans / Minorities.
• Mandarin Hans / Non-Mandarin
Hans (Cantonese, Wu, Hakka,
etc.).
China
■ Demographics...
• More people than the combined population of Europe, the
Americas and Japan.
• Any change has global ramifications.
• The demography of China is a powerful trend (1.29 billion):
•
•
•
•
About 14-17 million people are added each year in 1980s.
Average of 13 million people per year in the 1990s.
10 million people per year in the 2000s.
About 1.5 billion by 2050.
• 400 million Chinese live in towns and cities (30-35%).
• 64% of the population lives in rural areas (950 millions).
• 343 million females are in their reproductive age.
The Population of China, 0-2050
1600
2050
1400
2000
1995
1200
1000
1981
800
1970
600
1953
1949
1851
1911
18121887
400
200
0
2
105
0
755
500
1210
1083
1000
1381
1562 1650
1500
1753
2000
Chinese Population, 1949-2000 (in millions)
(projections to 2050)
1500
1300
1100
900
700
500
1945
1955
1965
1975
1985
1995
2005
2015
2025
2035
2045
Population of Selected Chinese Provinces, 1998
France
United Kingdom
Italy
Egypt
Hunan
Hebei
Iran
Philippines
Jiangsu
Germany
Shandong
Henan
Mexico
Nigeria
.
Sichuan
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
China
■ The problems of controlling it...
• The population exploded after 1949.
• Population control was secondary.
• Mao Zedong saw numbers as a workforce and a way to fight the
Soviet Union and the United States.
• Calls for women to “breed for the motherland”.
■ Population distribution
• Excessive concentration:
• 50% of the population lives on 8.2% of the land.
• Bulk of the population along the coast.
• East China accounts for 90% of the population.
• 56%, about 728 million, are living in mountainous areas.
• High density rural areas.
China
■ Current issues
• Population growth undermines Chinese development (education,
health, food, transportation).
• About 10 million persons reach the job market each year.
• Increasing ethnic diversity:
• The government had not enforced the One Child Policy among the
country’s 55 recognized minority groups.
• They had increased their share of still predominantly Han population to
8% in 2000 from 6.7% in 1982.
• Missing female population.
• Sustaining agriculture.
• Coping with huge urban growth.
Population Pyramid of China, 2000
Female
Male
64
52
60
63
-70
42
42
31
18
21
24
2
5
8
60-64
50-54
13
18
20
22
29
40-44
41
40
30-34
20-24
48
51
55
1
80-84
3
7
12 70-74
-50
42
43
10-14
0-4
51
-30
-10
Millions
50
43
10
30
48
50
61
58
58
70
China
■ Recent problems
• Increasing the agricultural output:
• Agricultural output increased significantly in the 1990s due to reforms.
• About 10 million new mouths to feed each year with declining agricultural
surfaces.
• Production of grain is diverted to livestock (meat) and other produces (e.g.
beer).
• Traditional land structures have reach optimal capacity:
• Output cannot be increased without the usage of modern techniques such
as machinery and fertilizers.
• Farm size is too small (less than 1 hectare per household in coastal
areas).
• Limited investments in agriculture by the peasant.
China
• Land ownership:
• Peasants do not own the land they use (collectivization).
• With reforms, most of the land has been rented.
• Peasants victims of high taxes and arbitrary expropriation.
• Urbanization, industrialization and transport:
• Decreased agricultural land in the most productive areas.
• Speculation around cities towards golf courses and leisure centers at the
expanse of agriculture.
• The state is investing less in agriculture.
• Local authorities are more interested by business (more taxes).
• Dependency:
• China is now a net importer of grain.
• By 2030, China would need to import the current global grain production.
70,000
250
Yield (kg / hectare)
60,000
Permanent crops (1,000
hectares)
Production (tons)
50,000
200
150
40,000
30,000
100
20,000
50
10,000
2003
2001
1999
1997
1995
1993
1991
1989
1987
1985
1983
1981
1979
1977
1975
1973
1971
1969
1967
1965
1963
0
1961
0
Millions
Production and Yield of Paddy Rice in China, 1961-2004
45,000
140
Yield (kg / hectare)
40,000
120
Production (tons)
35,000
100
30,000
25,000
80
20,000
60
15,000
40
10,000
20
5,000
2003
2001
1999
1997
1995
1993
1991
1989
1987
1985
1983
1981
1979
1977
1975
1973
1971
1969
1967
1965
1963
0
1961
0
Millions
Production and Yield of Wheat in China, 1961-2004
China
■ The appeal of modernization
• For the last 500 years, China had an inferiority complex.
• Strong pressure to portray China as a modernizing nation.
• Large investments in grandiose projects:
•
•
•
•
•
Three Gorges Dam.
First maglev train in Shanghai (2003).
First Chinese in space (2003).
New international airports (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou).
2008 Olympics.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Easier and cheaper to switch to the latest technology.
China has 300 million cell phone subscribers.
5 million new subscribers per month.
70% of Beijing resident have a cell phone; 60% for Shanghai (2002).
42% of the Guangdong province population; 30 million.
Half of the rural residents have a television.
• Development of the telecom market:
China
■ Growing consumption of resources
• Economic growth has increased China’s consumption of
resources:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
“The Dragon is hungry”.
Consumes 50% of the world’s cement.
30% of the coal.
40% of the steel.
Second largest consumer of oil after the United States.
Energy supply problems with increasing blackouts.
Completion of a natural gas pipeline in 2004 (Tarim Basin to Shanghai).
• Driving up global commodity prices:
• Increased global competition caused by China.
• Fear that China may “export inflation”.
• China may hit a “resource wall” inhibiting future developments.
China
■ World dominance in manufacturing
• Two processes:
• Addition of new manufacturing activities either the outcome of FDI or
internal investments (modern facilities).
• The closing down of many manufacturing activities, mainly the outcome of
Chinese competition and/or comparative advantages.
• 50% of the world's TVs.
• 60% of the world's cell phones.
• 50% the world's shoes (and 95% of those sold in the United
States).
• 80% of the toys sold in the United States.
• 90% of the sporting goods sold in the United States.
• 100% of Levi's blue jeans are now made in China.
China
■ Industrial development problems
• Pulling out millions of Chinese out of poverty:
• More than 200 million peasants live on less than $1 a day.
• Justifies any policy and project.
• Important environmental costs.
• Inequality is becoming a standard:
• Wages remain $50 to $70 per month.
• With inflation, standards of living are going down.
• Guangdong; the Manchester of the 21st century.
• Chinese exports are similar to Pacific Asian exports:
• Intense competition from Thailand, Indonesia, and South Korea.
• China is however winning the competition war.
• Industrial overcapacity:
• Over investment.
• Over supply of consumption goods, driving prices down.
C Jakota
■ The Jakota triangle
•
•
•
•
Japan, South Korea, Taiwan.
The most advanced segment of the region.
Rapid economic development.
Great cities:
• Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei.
•
•
•
•
•
Enormous consumption of raw materials.
State-of-the-art industries.
Voluminous exports.
Global links.
Trades surpluses.
Japan
■ Location
• “jih-pen” in Chinese:
• Since Western civilizations
encountered China before
Japan, the name “Japan” stuck.
• Nihon (or Nippon), meaning
“Source of the sun”.
• Relative isolation in Pacific Asia:
Contemporary Flag
• Insularity.
• Do not share a land border with
any country.
• Maritime access:
• Shimaguni (island country)
• Labeled as the Great Britain of
the Pacific.
Imperial Flag
Japan
■ Economic domination
• Small-sized country; the size of California.
• Average-sized population (127 millions).
• Very limited array of resources:
• Favored the development of trade.
• What Japan does not have on its national territory is obtained through
trade.
• Its industrial corporations and its banks are controlling a significant array
of resources.
• Domination of the Pacific Asian economy:
•
•
•
•
Vast national market.
Productive labor force.
Financial power.
Technological innovator.
Japan
■ Linking the main Japanese
islands
Hokkaido
3
Sea of Japan
Honshu
2
1
Shikoku
Kyushu
• Required the construction of bridges
and tunnels.
• Impressive engineering
achievements.
• 1) Seto-Ohashi bridge:
• Shikoku/Honshu.
• Naruto Strait.
• 2) Kanmon bridge:
• Strait of Shimonoseki.
• Kyushu/Honshu.
• 3) Seikan tunnel:
• Tsugaru Strait (Honshu/Hokkaido)
• 33 miles, 1988, longest in the world.
Japan
■ Physical constraints
Hokkaido
Honshu
Kanto Plain
Yamato Plain
Shikoku
Kyushu
Nobi Plain
• Physical geography increases the
territorial exiguity.
• 16% of the land is habitable.
• Fight against the scarcity of space:
• Long narrow valleys.
• Concentration of agricultural
productivity.
• Efficient management of existing
agricultural land.
• Kanto plain:
• 30.5% of the population.
• 8.3% of the surface of Japan.
• 50% of the flat territory.
• Most of the Japanese population lives
on an area the size of Indiana.
Automobile Production, United States, Japan and
Germany, 1950-2004 (in millions)
45
Germany
Japan
United States
World
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
50
19
53
19
56
19
59
19
62
19
65
19
68
19
71
19
74
19
77
19
80
19
83
19
86
19
89
19
92
19
95
19
98
19
01
20
04
20
Global Production per Car Manufacturer, 2001
Other
Mitsubishi
Renault
Fiat
Nissan
Honda
PSA
DaimlerChrysler
Volkswagen
Toyota
Ford/Mazda
GM
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
The Shinkansen High Speed Rail Network
Operational
Under Construction
Planned
Hokkaido
Sapporo
Hakodate
Aomori
Hachinohe
Akita
Morioka
Shinjo
Yamagata
Niigita
Kanazawa
Honshu
Shimonoseki
Nagano
Nagoya
Sendai
Fukushima
Takasaki
Omiya
Tokyo
Okayama
Osaka
Fukowa Shikoku
Nagasaki
0
70 140
280
420
560
Kilometers
Kyushu
kagoshima
0
50
100
200
300
400
Miles
South Korea
0
50
100
200
■ Geography
300
Miles
China
!(
!(
North Korea
!(
Sea of Japan
P'yongyang
!(
Demilitarized zone
!(
Inch`onSeoul
!(
!(
South Korea
!(
!(
!(
!(
Taejon
Chonju
Kwangju
!(
Taegu
!(
Pusan
Japan
“The shrimp between the whales”.
About the size of Indiana.
Population of 48 million.
Highly homogenous ethnicity and
linguistically (100% Korean).
• Religiously divided between
Christianity (49%) and Buddhism
(47%).
• 75% urban with 27% of the
population living in Seoul (13
million).
• 5 million Koreans live oversea:
•
•
•
•
• 1 million in the United States.
South Korea
■ The Korean War (1950-1953)
• Antagonism of the two new nations:
• Supported by China and the USSR.
• Invasion of South Korea by North Korea (1950).
• United Nations intervention:
• Multinational force intervened and repelled the invasion (1951).
• Military intervention of China (1952).
• An armistice was signed (1953):
• Both countries are still technically at war.
• 4 million civilian perished.
• Millions of refugees trapped in the division of Korea.
• The demilitarized zone of the 38th parallel:
• 240 km in length and 4 km in width.
• Current border between the Koreas.
• The United States maintains a force of 45,000 troops.
LCD Shipments, 2004 (in millions)
Other
HannStar Display (Taiwan)
Sharp (Japan)
Quanta Computer (Taiwan)
Chunghwa Picture Tubes (Taiwan)
Chi Mei Optoelectronics (Taiwan)
AU Optonics (Taiwan)
LG Philips (Korea joint venture)
Samsung (Korea)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Taiwan
■ Geographical Context
!(
Fuzhou
Matsu
China
Taiwan
!(
Quemoy
!(
!(
T'ainan
!(
0
50
100
T'aichung
Kaoshsiung
200 Miles
Taipei
• About 150 km (100 miles) from the
coast of southeast China.
• About the size of Idaho.
• Similar constraints than neighboring
countries:
• 60% of the territory is composed of
mountains.
• Chungyang Range covers about
50% the total land area.
• 25% usable for agriculture.
• Bulk of the population lives in the
western coastal plain.
• Quemoy and Matsu islands:
• Used for defensive purposes.
Taiwan
■ The integration of the two Chinas
• During the 1980s the PRC offered the ROC reintegration and an
autonomous status.
• Strong ideological conflicts prevents reintegration.
• Tiananmen massacre (1989):
• Reinforced mistrust towards mainland China.
• Provided additional support by the United States.
• One China Policy:
• Rapprochement with China (1991):
– Declaration of the end of hostilities (Chinese Civil War).
– Recognition of the existence of the PRC by the ROC.
• Taiwan government recognized there is one China and that Taiwan is a
province of China (1995).
• Officially gave up its pretension of being the representative government of
China.
Taiwan
■ Towards the first Chinese democracy in history
• 40 years of economic growth, independence and a market
economy has changed considerably the Taiwanese society.
• Democratization and multiparty system (1987).
• The firsts elections are organized (1989):
• Ending 40 years of single party government.
• Put back the Kuomintang in power (this time a legitimate power).
• Affirmation of the Taiwanese identity.
• Creates an uneasy situation with the PRC:
• Reintegration becomes more problematic.

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