here - Dr Marcella J Kelly

Report
Population abundance, density, and
habitat analysis of the large carnivore
species of the Niokolo Koba National
Park in Senegal
Mamadou D. Kane
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
College of Natural Resources and Environment
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation
 Created in 1954, extended 4
 Streams: Gambia river and its 3
times to its current size :
tributaries: Niokolo,
913,000 ha
Koulountou and Nieriko +
 Topography: Valleys, plateaus
and hills, max elevation 311 m
(Mount Assirik)
 Climate: Sudanian
 Rainfall : 900-1200 mm/year,
June to October
 Mean temperatures: 25C–35C
numerous ponds and pools
 Vegetation: transition between
Sudano-Guinean savanna and
Guinean savanna:
1. Grassland or opened savanna:
continuous herbaceous strata
2. Bushland: in the plateaus and hill
slopes with a continuous herbaceous
strata scattered with shrubs
3. Savanna: in the plateaus and hill
slopes with a tree cover of 5 to 25% and
a continuous closed herbaceous layer
4. Woodland: in the depressions
between the hills and along the valleys,
trees and shrubs cover 25 to 50%.
5. Open forest: soil coverage of 50 to
75% located in floodplains of some rivers
6. Gallery forest: represents 78% of
the Senegalese gallery forest in the wet
valleys with good soil and hydrologic
conditions
7. Marshes: in the ponds and pools in
the banks of the Gambia river. Annual
and perennial grasses over 25 cm high
and below 150 cm.
NKNP: in situ repository on animal diversity…
• Double international recognition in 1981 as a Biosphere
Reserve of UNESCO and as a World Heritage site under
Criteria X
• 80 mammal species, 330 bird species, 60 fish species and
36 reptile species (MEPN, 1998)
• Last refuge for large mammal species of the country:
elephant (Loxodonta africana), the Derby eland
(Taurotragus derbianus derbianus), chimpanzee (Pan
troglodytes), etc. (MEPN, 1998)
NKNP: in situ repository on animal diversity…
• Westernmost and northernmost limit of distribution of
some mammal species in Africa: African wild dog (Lycaon
pictus), Derby eland, chimpanzee, lion (Panthera leo),
leopard (P. pardus), etc..
• Carnivore population: 23 species out of 75 carnivore
species in Africa (31%) (Sillero-Zubiri et al., 1997)
NKNP: in situ repository on animal diversity…
• 4 of 5 largest African carnivores species: lion, leopard,
African wild dog, spotted hyena
• However, status of these species unknown, like most of
the carnivores of the West African protected areas
• Populations occur at lower densities compared to
Southern and East African Protected Areas, Ex: lion : ‘EN’
in W. Africa, ‘VU’ in Southern and East Africa
In Niokolo Koba National Park, few estimates of
carnivores population were conducted


First actual estimate (herbivores and carnivores) : 1990
From 1990 to 1998: periodic censuses
◦ Method : line transects by vehicle and on foot, during daylight
hours, 3 days each year on February
◦ Results analyzed with program Distance
◦ Results: (Galat et al., 1998)
 Lion : 165 (62 – 441)
 African wild dog : 347 (90 – 1337)

1997: Focus on carnivores species
◦ Method :
 Line transects by vehicle during daylight and night hours
 Broadcast stations with taped carnivore calls
◦ Results:
 21,668 km covered (1,292 hours) including 1,419 km(106
hours) of night searches
◦ Estimates (Sillero-Zubiri et al, 1997)
 Lion : 50 - 150
 African wild dog : 50 - 200
 Leopard : 100 - 300
 Spotted hyena : 200 - 500

2001: Terrestrial and aerial counts
◦ Method:
 Line transects by vehicle, plane and on foot,
 Daylight hours, January to June, 5 days each month
◦ Results: (Ndiaye, 2001)
 African wild dog : (a group of 9 sighted)

2006: African Park Foundation census
◦ Method:
 Line transects by plane and on foot, during
 Daylight hours, 10 days
◦ Results:




40.3% of the park covered by plane (3,335km2)
83 line transects on foot (1,979 km)
No carnivore sighted by plane
Terrestrial count recorded 5 species
Species
Jackal
Lion
Leopard
Spotted Hyena
African wild dog
Number of contacts (direct
and indirect)
120
5
19
43
9
Renaud et al., 2006
Number of
contacts/100 km
7.1
0.3
1.1
2.6
0.5

2006: African Park Foundation census
◦ Consequence:
 Inscription of the park in the List of Word Heritage Sites in Danger
in 2007 mainly because of “the critically low mammal
populations” (World Heritage Committee, 2007)

2011: NGO Panthera and DPNS
◦ Focus on carnivores species, specifically lions
◦ Method:
 Line transects by vehicle for track survey during daylight and
night hours (March – April, 40 days)
 Camera trapping
 Broadcast stations
 Scat sampling for DNA analysis
◦ Estimates: (Henschel and Ndao, 2011) based only on track survey
Species
Lion
Leopard
African wild dog
Hyena
Index of abundance
(tracks/100km)
1.0
14.29
1.66
23.6
Density
(n/100km2)
0.2
4.4
0.4
7.4
Population
size (n)
17
403
37
679

Methods:
 Except the 1997 and 2011 counts, method used (line
transect during daytime) unsuitable for carnivore species
estimates
 Time frame very short for all the counts (max 40 days)

Results
 Not precise (wide confidence intervals)
 Indices of abundance not calibrated
 Analyses focus mainly on direct sightings (1990 – 1999 and
2001)

Consequences
 Large carnivore population size is still unknown

Focus on lion, leopard, hyena and African wild dog

Methods: more suitable techniques for carnivore
estimates
◦ Camera trapping
◦ Scat collection

Time frame:
◦ Pilot study: 2 month (May – July 2012)
◦ Field study : January – May 2013

Expected outcomes
◦ Density, abundance and occupancy estimation coupled with
habitat analysis and predictive modeling
◦ Presence and habitat use for herbivores and smaller
carnivores
CAMERA TRAPPING for density estimation
 Target species: Leopard, African wild dog
 Grids that take into account the home range sizes of
the carnivores


Abundance estimation with
traditional CMR then
density estimation
Habitat features analysis
and predictive modeling
SCAT COLLECTION
 Non invasive genetic sampling
 DNA source: scat
 Sampling design: opportunistic search : several field
staff

Genetic analysis for 4 carnivore species
◦ Species (mtDNA analysis )
◦ Sex and Individuals (nuclear DNA-microsatellite primers)


Data Analysis: density estimation (traditional CMR and
Spatial Explicit Analysis)
Density estimates – compare results from genetic and
camera density analysis





Advisors: Dr. M. Kelly and Dr. P. Henschel (external
Committee Member)
Committee Members: Dr. W. M. Ford, Dr. S. Karpanty
WHAPA Lab (318 Cheatham), specially Claudia Wultsch
and Christine Proctor
Sponsors: USAID – Senegalese Gov.
International Student Scholarship

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