Chapter 9

Report
Chapter 9
Fundamentals of Leadership
Learning Objectives
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Describe the characteristics and skills related to managerial
effectiveness.
Compare and contrast Theory X and Theory Y.
Distinguish among four styles of leadership behavior.
Explain the concept of “self-leaders” and the basic rules of
behavior.
Describe the two major dimensions of leadership.
Distinguish among the contingency leadership approaches.
2
Learning Objectives
(contd.)
7)
8)
Describe several challenges of leaders in the next decade.
Identify ways of developing internal leaders and dealing with
high-potential employees who have bad work habits.
3
The Nature of
Leadership
Leadership is the process of influencing
people to direct their efforts toward
particular goals.
Leadership characteristics are those possessed by
effective leaders and include drive, originality,
persistence, and tolerance of stress.
Personal characteristics are personal attributes
often possessed by effective leaders and include
superior mental ability, emotional maturity, and
problem-solving skills.
4
Figure 9.1 - Skills Needed at Different
Hierarchical Levels
5
Table 9.1 - Summary of Leadership Skills
6
Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X holds that people are
basically lazy.
Theory Y holds that, under the right
conditions, people will work.
7
Figure 9.2 - Continuum of Leadership
Behavior
8
Leader-Subordinate Interactions
(based on Figure 9.3)
Authoritarian Leadership
Paternalistic Leadership
Leader
Leader
Subordinate
Subordinate
Subordinate
Subordinate
Subordinate
Subordinate
9
Based on Figure 9.3 (Contd)
Participative Leadership
Leader
Subordinate
Subordinate
Subordinate
Continual flow of info. from
leader to subordinate
Continual exch. of info.
between leader and
subordinate and/or between
subordinates themselves
Leader
Occasional exch. of
info between leader
and subordinate
Subordinate
Subordinate
Subordinate
Laissez-Faire Leadership
10
Figure 9.4 - A Leadership Grid
11
Figure 9.5 - Contingency Leadership Styles
Applied to a Leadership Grid
12
Fiedler’s Contingency
Model
… holds that leader effectiveness is
determined by leadership style and situational
variables.
The least preferred coworker scale
describes the individual with whom the
respondent can work least well.
13
Situational Variables in
Fiedler’s Model



Leader-member relations
Task structure
Leader position power
14
The Managerial Grid
(based on Figure 9.7)
High
9
1, 9
9,9
Country Club Manager
Team Builder
5,5
Organization Man
1
Low
1,1
9,1
Do-Nothing Manager
Production Pusher
1
Low
Concern for Production
9
High
15
Table 9.2 - Transformational and Transactional
Leaders: A Comparison
16
Figure 9.9 - An Optimal Profile of Universal
Leadership Behaviors
17
Key Terms in the
Chapter
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Leadership
Leadership characteristics
Personal characteristics
Trait theory
Technical skills
Human skills
Conceptual skills
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Theory X
Theory Y
Authoritarian leadership
Paternalistic leadership
Participative leadership
Laissez-faire leadership
Leadership dimensions
Fiedler’s contingency model
18
Key Terms in the
Chapter (contd.)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Least preferred coworker
scale
Leader-member relations
Task structure
Leader position power
Managerial grid
1,1 Managerial style
9,1 Managerial style
•
•
•
•
•
•
1,9 Managerial style
5,5 Managerial style
9,9 Managerial style
Charismatic leader
Transformational leader
Transactional leader
19

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