Albanian migration * between brain drain and remittances

Report
Albanian migration – between
brain drain and remittances
CONFERENCE ON INTERNATIONAL
MIGRATION
T
H
14
FEBRUARY 2014
ECONOMIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE AT BAS
Ilir GEDESHI – Center for Economic and Social Studies (CESS)
Albnian Migration
Year of first migration experience, current migration and legalization in the
destinations countries (in percent)
20,0
18,0
16,0
14,0
12,0
First migration experience
10,0
Current migration
8,0
Legalization
6,0
4,0
2,0
,0
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Source: CESS Migrant Questionnaire, 2009/2010
Fig. 1. First migratory experience and year of migration in current host country
Albanian Migration/Push and pull factors
Source: CESS Migrant Questionnaire, 2006
Fig. 2. Main reasons for migrating in the 90’
Albanian Migration
Sector of employment in the country of migration during 2009
50.0
44.4
45.0
40.0
35.0
37.0
34.3
30.0
Greece
25.0
19.7
20.0
15.0
20.9
Italy
20.2
18.3
14.4
15.4
17.0
Others
14.4
10.0
5.0
12.8
12.0
6.8
7.4
0.9
1.2
2.9
0.0
Source: CESS Migrant Questionnaire, 2009/2010
Fig. 3. Employment sectors of Albanian migrants in host countries
Albanian Brain Drain
Source: CESS, 2008
Fig.4. Dynamics of Albanian brain drain: share of Academics
moving abroad as % of total Academics (1990-2008)
Albanian Brain Drain
Albanian Brain drain by the countries of destination in 2008
35
29.2
30
Percent
25
17.8
20
15
12.4
9.4
9.9
10
5
8.9
7.2
2.9
2.2
0
Austria
Canada
France
Greece
Germany
Italy
Other
countries
UK
USA
Source: CESS, 2008
Fig. 5. Albanian brain drain by the country of destination in 2008 (in percent)
Albanian Brain Drain
Albain Brain Drain by Country of Destination and Year of Migration
50
45
40
35
UK
30
France
Greece
25
Italy
20
Canada
15
Germany
USA
10
5
0
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Source: CESS, 2008
Fig.6. Albanian Brain Drain by Country of Destination and Year of Migration (in %)
Diaspora Option
Albanian academics and researchers working abroad
by country (%)
Other countries
Germany
Italy
Canada
Austria
Percent
UK
France
USA
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Source: CESS., Updating the database of overseas graduates, 2004
Fig. 7. Albanian academics and researchers working abroad by country
Brain Gain
Fig. 8. The conditions for the return of academics and researchers
Remittances
1400
1200
1000
800
Remittances USD
600
400
200
0
Source: Bank of Albania, 2014
Fig. 9. Volume of remittances in USD and Euros
Remittances
EURO
Remittances
Remittances to Albania, as % of GDP, 1996 - 2011
18.00%
16.00%
14.00%
12.00%
10.00%
8.00%
6.00%
4.00%
2.00%
0.00%
Source: Bank of Albania, 2014
Fig.10. Remittances to Albania as percent of GDP
Remittances
Investments
ALSMS,
2002
12%
ETF Study,
2007
11,8%
de Zwager et al.,
2010
10%
Table 3. Portion of remittances that is invested according to different studies
Remittances
Selected Data on Migrant Household (HH) Savings and Remittance Behaviour:
Monthly HH Income:
Monthly Expenditures:
Monthly Saving Rate:
Annual HH Remittance
Value:
Annual HH Savings Rate:*
Savings in 2008:
Remittances 2008:
Savings/Remittances Factor:
Albania
€ 2,300
€ 1,477
€ 855
Kosovo
€ 3,900
€ 2,324
€ 1,578
BiH**
€ 2,288
€ 1,938
€ 350
€ 1,664
€ 10,260
€ 3,473 Million
€ 672 Million
5.2
€ 3,212
€ 15,724
€ 2,340 Million
€ 479 Million
4.8
€ 1,752
€ 2,448
€ 1,175 Million
€ 841 Million
1.4
* # Kosovar HH abroad: 149,000; # Albanian HH abroad: 404,000; Source: IASCI-NEXUS Field Research Dec-Jan 2008/9
** The above BiH-specific figures are speculative as they are based on a conservative extrapolation of incomes, expenditures, savings
and remittances behaviours of BiH migrant HHs in Austria. # BiH HH abroad: 480,000 based on 2.5 persons per HH of an estimated total
number of 1.2 Mio BiH migrants abroad. Source: IASCI-NEXUS Study 2009
Conclusions

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