MPI for vulnerable groups (the case of Roma)

Report
Andrey Ivanov, Senior Policy Advisor, UNDP BRC
Eschborn, 14 July 2013
MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY ANALYSIS
APPLIED TO THE ROMA
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This presentation summarizes some preliminary results of
an ongoing research based on the data come primarily
from
 The regional Roma survey 2011 supported by the
European Union (DG Regional Policy), implemented by
UNDP and the World Bank and administered by IPSOS,
Serbia and
 The regional Roma survey 2004, supported by UNDP
and administered by BBSS-Gallup, Bulgaria, TARKI,
Hungary and Focus, Czech Republic.
The data sets and the research papers based on the data
available from the UNDP website:
http://europeandcis.undp.org/ourwork/roma
Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: Applying multidimensional poverty analysis to Roma, 14 June 2013
WHY FOCUS ON ROMA?


“The largest European minority” – between 8 and 12 Mil
people (or more?)
Represent an ultimate development challenge





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A fundamental reformulation from “human rights” issue into
“rights based development” issue
“Schizophrenic combination” of “developing world” level of
deprivation and “developed world” context
Heavily overrepresented among the poor
Huge resources allocated already (and more to come
under “Europe 2020”)
A way of going “beyond NTL averages”
What work for Roma might work for other similarly
deprivedgroups
WHY MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY?
Roma deprivation is not just a monetary
poverty issue
 Individual dimensions contribute differently to
the overall deprivation outcome (status)
 Makes possible building an integrated posture
of the status (and thus link to the outrcomes of
interventions)

DEFINING THE TARGET: POSSIBLE OPTIONS

Self-identification (asking people, “Are you Roma?”)
 Convenient and politically safe (nothing is imposed on
the respondent)…
 …but doesn’t yield relevant data because of the
vagueness of the question triggering additional ones in
respondents’ minds, like
 If
yes, does it mean I am not Romanian, Bulgarian, Slovak?
 Why do they ask – maybe to frame me?

External (‘imposed’) identification



By non-Roma – verges on segregationist attitudes
By Roma – “you may not know who we are – but we do”
Combined (multi-stage approach) – used in the surveys of
UNDP (2004 and 2011) and of FRA (2011)
Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: Applying multidimensional poverty analysis to Roma, 14 June 2013
THE UNDP/WB AND FRA REGIONAL SURVEYS

Provide quantifiable and comparable picture of the
current situation of living conditions of Roma in
the EU and non-EU countries (what is the status)


Illustrate the dynamics over time of some basic
indicators (what has changed since 2004)


…to provide the ground for progress evaluation,
Suggest possible correlations and causalities
(what drives the status)


Based on this, they send a message to policy-makers,
…to help answer the “why this status?” question
Inform policymakers on possible priorities

…to suggest “what can be done” to achieve change
Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: Applying multidimensional poverty analysis to Roma, 14 June 2013
…AND IN OTHER COUNTRIES AS WELL
Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: Applying multidimensional poverty analysis to Roma, 14 June 2013
THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY ANALYSIS

Data allows calculating multidimensional poverty rates
and index – an aggregate measure of deprivation in 4
dimensions reflecting the priority areas of the Decade of
Roma Inclusion

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
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Health
Education
Housing and
Standard of Living
Follows Alkire/Foster methodology
Based on 12 indicators, 3 for each dimension
A person is considered poor if s/he is deprived in at
least 6 of the 12 indicators and severely poor if deprived
in 9 out of 12 indicators
Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: Applying multidimensional poverty analysis to Roma, 14 June 2013
HEALTH DIMENSION

Shares of the population not having access to
essential drugs (1/12)

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Perceived vaccination rate (1/12)


Any HH member living in a HH responding "yes" to the
question "were there any periods in the past 12 months
when your HH could not afford to buy medicines
prescribed by a doctor”
Any child aged 0-6 years old who has not received any
or some of the obligatory vaccinations
Malnutrition (1/12)

Any HH member living in a HH that experienced that in
the past month somebody ever went to bed hungry
because they could not afford enough food for them
EDUCATIONAL DIMENSION

Highest completed education (1/12)
 Any
HH member of higher than primary education
age with uncompleted primary education

Number of years in education (1/12)
 Any

HH member with less than 5 years in education
Gross enrolment rate in compulsory education
(1/12)
 Any
HH member aged 7-15 who is not attending
school or training
“BASIC INFRASTRUCTURES” DIMENSION

Shares of the population not having access to
improved water source (1/12)
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Shares of the population not having access to
improved sanitation (1/12)

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Any HH member living in HHs not having piped water
inside the dwelling or in the garden/yard
Any HH member living in a HH without toilet or
bathroom inside the house
Access to electricity (1/12)

Any HH member living in a HH with no access to
electricity in their dwelling
“STANDARD OF LIVING” DIMENSION

Shares of the population not having access to
secure housing (1/12)

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Access to various HH amenities (1/12)

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Any HH member living in "ruined houses" or "slums" (as
assessed by the enumerator)
Any HH member living in a HH, which doesn't posses
four of six categories falling in "UNDP material
deprivation" index
Absolute poverty rate (1/12)

Any HH member living in a HH living in the households
where the equivalent per capita income/expenditures
are below $2.15 or $4.3 poverty lines
MONETARY AND MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY
Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: Applying multidimensional poverty analysis to Roma, 14 June 2013
POVERTY DYNAMICS
“POOR” AND “SEVERELY POOR” 2004-2011
NUMBER OF DEPRIVATIONS OF M-POOR, 2011
INDIVIDUAL DIMENSIONS’ CONTRIBUTION, 2011
MORE SUBTLE DETAILS OF DEPRIVATION…
THE OVERALL MESSAGES OF THE DATA

Certain progress in regards Roma inclusion has
been made since the launch of the Decade of
Roma inclusion
 But
unequal in all areas
 Unequal between countries

Quantitative data is of paramount importance
for establishing reliable and robust progress
monitoring systems
 But
quantitative data needs to be properly
contextualized through qualitative research
Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: Applying multidimensional poverty analysis to Roma, 14 June 2013
POLICY RELEVANCE
Still potential (hard to go beyond research and
communication campaigns)
 But promising (unlike 2004)
 Hopefully will be used for monitoring the
progress in Roma inclusion (both within the
Decade of Roma Inclusion and the European
Roma Policy Framework)
 Involving national institutions is key
 But difficult to various reasons (incl. vested
interests)


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