Biology Ch. 9

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Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction
Section 1: Cellular Growth
Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
Section 3: Cell Cycle Regulation
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Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.1 Cellular Growth
Ratio of Surface Area to Volume
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.1 Cellular Growth
 As the cell grows, its volume increases
much more rapidly than the surface area.
 The cell might have difficulty supplying
nutrients and expelling enough waste
products.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.1 Cellular Growth
Transport of Substances
 Substances move by diffusion or by
motor proteins.
 Diffusion over large distances is slow
and inefficient.
 Small cells maintain more efficient
transport systems.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.1 Cellular Growth
Cellular Communications
 The need for signaling proteins to move
throughout the cell also limits cell size.
 Cell size affects the ability of the cell
to communicate instructions for cellular
functions.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.1 Cellular Growth
The Cell Cycle
 Cell division prevents the cell from becoming
too large.
 It also is the way the cell reproduces so that
you grow and heal certain injuries.
 Cells reproduce by a cycle of growing and
dividing called the cell cycle.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.1 Cellular Growth
 Interphase is the stage during which the
cell grows, carries out cellular functions,
and replicates.
 Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during
which the cell’s nucleus and nuclear material
divide.
 Cytokinesis is the method by which a cell’s
cytoplasm divides, creating a new cell.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.1 Cellular Growth
The Stages of Interphase
 The first stage of interphase, G1
 The cell is growing, carrying out normal cell
functions, and preparing to replicate DNA.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.1 Cellular Growth
The Second Stage of Interphase, S
 The cell copies its DNA in preparation for
cell division.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.1 Cellular Growth
The Third Stage of Interphase, G2
 The cell prepares for the division of its
nucleus.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis
The Stages of Mitosis
 Prophase
 The cell’s chromatin tightens.
 Sister chromatids are attached at the
centromere.
 Spindle fibers form in the cytoplasm.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis
 The nuclear
envelope seems
to disappear.
 Spindle fibers
attach to the sister
chromatids.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis
Metaphase
 Sister chromatids
are pulled along the
spindle apparatus
toward the center of
the cell.
 They line up in the
middle of the cell.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis
Anaphase
 The microtubules of the spindle apparatus
begin to shorten.
 The sister chromatids separate.
 The chromosomes move toward the poles
of the cell.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis
Telophase
 The chromosomes arrive at the poles and
begin to relax.
 Two new nuclear membranes begin to form
and the nucleoli reappear.
 The spindle apparatus disassembles.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis
Cytokinesis
 In animal cells, microfilaments constrict, or
pinch, the cytoplasm.
 In plant cells, a new structure, called a cell
plate, forms.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation
Normal Cell Cycle
 Different cyclin/CDK
combinations signal
other activities,
including DNA
replication, protein
synthesis, and nuclear
division throughout the
cell cycle.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation
Quality Control Checkpoints
 The cell cycle has built-in checkpoints that
monitor the cycle and can stop it if something
goes wrong.
 Spindle checkpoints also have been identified
in mitosis.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation
Abnormal Cell Cycle: Cancer
 Cancer is the
uncontrolled growth
and division of cells.
 Cancer cells can kill
an organism by
crowding out normal
cells, resulting in the loss of tissue function.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation
Causes of Cancer
 The changes that occur in the regulation of
cell growth and division of cancer cells are
due to mutations.
 Various environmental factors can affect the
occurrence of cancer cells.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation
Apoptosis
 Programmed cell death
 Cells going through apoptosis actually shrink
and shrivel in a controlled process.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation
Stem Cells
 Unspecialized cells
that can develop into
specialized cells
when under the right
conditions
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation
Embryonic Stem Cells
 After fertilization, the resulting mass of cells
divides repeatedly until there are about
100–150 cells. These cells have not become
specialized.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation
Adult Stem Cells
 Found in various tissues in the body and
might be used to maintain and repair the
same kind of tissue
 Less controversial because the adult stem
cells can be obtained with the consent of
their donor
Cellular
Reproduction
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Chapter Resource Menu
Chapter Diagnostic Questions
Formative Test Questions
Chapter Assessment Questions
Standardized Test Practice
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Vocabulary
Animation
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Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Chapter Diagnostic
Questions
Which is the first phase of mitosis?
A. interphase
B. prophase
C. metaphase
D. telophase
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
A
0%
B
A
B
C
D
0%
C
0%
D
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Chapter Diagnostic
Questions
During what phase do the sister chromatids
line up in the middle of the cell?
A. interphase
B. metaphase
C. anaphase
D. telophase
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
A
0%
B
A
B
C
D
0%
C
0%
D
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Chapter Diagnostic
Questions
Which is not a phase of the cell cycle?
A. cytokinesis
B. interphase
C. apoptosis
D. mitosis
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
A
0%
B
A
B
C
D
0%
C
0%
D
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.1 Formative
Questions
Which can more efficiently supply nutrients and
expel waste products?
A. larger cells
B. smaller cells
C. cells with lower surface
area to volume ratio
1.
2.
3.
4.
D. cells shaped like a cube
0%
A
0%
B
A
B
C
D
0%
C
0%
D
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.1 Formative
Questions
At what stage does a cell spend most of
its life?
A. cytokinesis
B. interphase
C. mitosis
D. synthesis
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
A
0%
B
A
B
C
D
0%
C
0%
D
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.1 Formative
Questions
What happens in the cell during cytokinesis?
A. The cell grows and carries
out normal functions.
B. The cell copies its DNA
and forms chromosomes.
C. The cell’s nucleus and
nuclear material divide.
D. The cell’s cytoplasm
divides.
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
A
0%
B
A
B
C
D
0%
C
0%
D
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.2 Formative
Questions
In what stage of the cell cycle does the
cell’s replicated genetic material separate?
A. cytokinesis
B. interphase
C. mitosis
D. prophase
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
A
0%
B
A
B
C
D
0%
C
0%
D
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.2 Formative
Questions
Which diagram shows anaphase?
0%
0%
0%
0%
D
D.
A
B
C
D
C
1.
2.
3.
4.
B
C.
B.
A
A.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.2 Formative
Questions
At the end of mitosis
the nuclear material is
divided and two new
cells have formed.
A. true
B. false
1. A
2. B
0%
B
A
0%
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.3 Formative
Questions
What are the “key and ignition” that start the
various activities in the cell cycle?
A. chromatin and
chromosomes
B. cyclin and CDKs
A
0%
0%
B
D. protein and ribosomes
0%
C
C. microtubules and
spindle fibers
A
B
C
D
0%
D
1.
2.
3.
4.
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.3 Formative
Questions
Which of these cancer-causing substances or
agents is impossible to avoid completely?
0%
B
A
0%
A
B
C
D
0%
0%
D
1.
2.
3.
4.
C
A. chemicals such as asbestos
B. food and drinks that
the FDA warns may
contain carcinogens
C. tobacco and
second-hand smoke
D. ultraviolet radiation from
the Sun
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.3 Formative
Questions
What is the term for the programmed death
of cells that are damaged beyond repair or
have harmful changes in their DNA?
0%
0%
C
A
B
C
D
B
A
0%
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
D
A. apoptosis
B. carcinogens
C. cytokinesis
D. mitosis
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
9.3 Formative
Questions
Which cells are not locked into becoming
one particular kind of cell and are capable
of developing into specialized tissues?
0%
0%
C
A
B
C
D
B
A
0%
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
D
A. apoptotic cells
B. cancer cells
C. prokaryotic cells
D. stem cells
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Chapter Assessment
Questions
This cell has completed
what stage of mitosis?
0%
0%
0%
D
A
B
C
D
C
A
0%
1.
2.
3.
4.
B
A. anaphase
B. interphase
C. metaphase
D. telophase
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Chapter Assessment
Questions
What term is used to describe programmed
cell death?
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
C
0%
B
A
0%
A
B
C
D
0%
D
A. apoptosis
B. anaphase
C. necrosis
D. cyclins
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Chapter Assessment
Questions
What is the role of cyclins in a cell?
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
C
0%
B
A
0%
A
B
C
D
0%
D
A. to control the movement
of microtubules
B. to signal for the cell
to divide
C. to stimulate the
breakdown of the
nuclear membrane
D. to cause the nucleolus
to disappear
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Standardized Test
Practice
Which cell has the lowest ratio of surface area
to volume?
C
C
B
1.
A
2.
B
0% 3.0% C 0%
A
A
B
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Standardized Test
Practice
At what stage of interphase
does the cell take inventory
and make sure it is ready for
the division of its nucleus?
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
C
0%
B
A
0%
A
B
C
D
0%
D
A. G1
B. S
C. G2
D. M
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Standardized Test
Practice
Which occurs in plant cells but not animal cells
during the cell cycle?
A. formation of a cell plate
B. formation of microtubules
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
0%
C
A
0%
B
D. movement of
chromosomes to the
poles of the cell
A
B
C
D
0%
D
C. formation of a cleavage
furrow at the equator of
the cell
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Standardized Test
Practice
Multiple changes in DNA
are required to change
an abnormal cell into a
cancer cell.
A. true
B. false
1. A
2. B
0%
B
A
0%
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Standardized Test
Practice
Which is not a condition that can result in cancer?
A. a failure in the control
mechanisms that regulate
the cell cycle
B. a failure in the repair
systems that fix changes
or damage to DNA
C. a failure of the spindle
fibers to move chromosomes
during mitosis
D. mutations or changes in
segments of DNA that
control protein production
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
A
0%
B
A
B
C
D
0%
C
0%
D
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Glencoe Biology Transparencies
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Image Bank
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Vocabulary
Section 1
cell cycle
interphase
mitosis
cytokinesis
chromosome
chromatin
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Vocabulary
Section 2
prophase
sister chromatid
centromere
spindle apparatus
metaphase
anaphase
telophase
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Vocabulary
Section 3
cyclin
cyclin-dependent kinase
cancer
carcinogen
apoptosis
stem cell
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction
Animation
 Visualizing the Cell Cycle
Chapter 9
Cellular Reproduction

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