Grade 9 Plagiarism Tutorial - Mt. Lebanon School District

Report
Using Sources in your Work:
A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism
GRADE 9
NOTE:
To move through this tutorial, use the
mouse to click on the arrow at the
bottom right of your screen.
Agenda for Tutorial

Read three sample situations. Determine if
the student was ethical in his or her use of
a source.

Learn more about how to avoid plagiarism.

Take a quiz to verify your understanding.

Pledge that you will not plagiarize.
Let’s look at some
hypothetical situations.
For each, identify if the student
used his or her sources acceptably.
Jack’s Situation
Jack has an English paper due tomorrow.
He read the book and paid attention
during class, but he has no idea what to
write about.
Jack logs onto the Internet “just to get
some ideas about topics for his paper.”
He finds a great idea and begins writing his
paper using the topic he found. He is very
careful to avoid copying any text or words
from the Internet article he found.
Is this plagiarism?
Yes
No
You must choose from the blue
buttons at the bottom of the page.
Read the situation and then choose
one of the options presented.
Click here to
return to previous slide
You said…
Jack did plagiarize.
You are right. Jack’s actions constitute
plagiarism.
• Jack is committing plagiarism by taking
the ideas of the source without citing
them in the paper.
• Even though he put the ideas in his own
words, Jack is stealing the intellectual
property of the source.
You said…
Jack did not plagiarize.
You are wrong. Jack’s actions constitute
plagiarism.
• Jack is committing plagiarism by taking the
ideas of the source without citing them in the
paper.
• Even though he put the ideas in his own
words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property
of the source. You are wrong. Jack’s actions
constitute plagiarism.
• He could avoid plagiarism if he cites the source
of the ideas in his paper.
Jill’s Situation
During history class, Jill is asked to
find some background on Fidel
Castro’s rise to power.
Jill does a Google search and arrives at
Wikipedia’s article on Fidel Castro.
Without using quotation marks, Jill
cuts and pastes several sentences
from Wikipedia into her assignment.
Is this plagiarism?
Yes
No
You must choose from the blue
buttons at the bottom of the page.
Read the situation and then choose
one of the options presented.
Click here to
return to previous slide
You said…
Jill did plagiarize.
You are right. Jill’s actions constitute
plagiarism.
• By taking the words from the Wikipedia
article, Jill is committing plagiarism.
• She can avoid plagiarizing if she quotes
the article in her assignment and
includes an entry describing the source
in a bibliography at the end of her
paper.
You said…
Jill did not plagiarize.
You are wrong. Jill’s actions constitute
plagiarism.
• By taking the words from the Wikipedia
article, Jill is committing plagiarism.
• She can avoid plagiarizing if she quotes
the article in her assignment and
includes an entry describing the source
in a bibliography at the end of her
paper.
Gretel’s Situation
Gretel is a freshman who feels
overwhelmed by the high school.
When her science teacher assigns a
short worksheet on genetics, Gretel
is confused and frustrated.
During lunch, Gretel “borrows” her
friend’s paper and copies the
answers onto her own paper.
Is this plagiarism?
Yes
No
You must choose from the blue
buttons at the bottom of the page.
Read the situation and then choose
one of the options presented.
Click here to
return to previous slide
You said…
Gretel did plagiarize.
You are right. Gretel’s actions
constitute plagiarism.
• Even if Gretel’s friend gave permission
for Gretel to copy her work, it is still
plagiarism.
• Gretel is guilty of plagiarism. She tried
to take credit for the words and ideas of
another person.
You said…
Gretel did not plagiarize.
You are wrong. Gretel’s actions
constitute plagiarism.
• Even if Gretel’s friend gave permission
for Gretel to copy her work, it is still
plagiarism.
• Gretel tried to take credit for the words
and ideas of another person.
Think you’ve got it?
Read the following…
(and remember, there will be a short quiz on this material!)
There are two acceptable ways
to use sources:

Direct Quotation

Paraphrase
• Includes summarizing and referencing the
works of others within your paper or project
There are two acceptable ways
to use sources:
Direct Quotation
• What it is:

The exact words of an author used word for word in
your paper or project.
• When to use it:


The exact phrasing of the source suits your needs.
You want to use the source’s exact words—even
just a particular apt or unusual phrase.
• How to use it:



Copy the exact words of the source, putting those
words inside quotation marks.
Put a citation at the end of the quotation indicating
the page number.
At the end of your paper, include a bibliographic
entry on a page that lists your references.
There are two acceptable ways
to use sources:
Paraphrase
• What it is:

Using your own words to restate the source’s idea. This could be
a summary of the source’s point, a brief mention of the source’s
findings, or a longer restatement of the source’s idea.
• Use paraphrase when:


The exact phrasing of the source is too technical, too wordy, etc.
You want to present the source’s idea in a more compact,
focused way
• How to use it:




Before the paraphrase, introduce the source. This will show
where the paraphrase begins.
Use your own words to restate the meaning of the source. This
means you change words, structure, and syntax. You do not
merely substitute synonyms for the source’s original phrasing.
Put a citation at the end of the quotation indicating the page
number or source.
Include a bibliographic entry on a reference page at
the end of your paper or project.
Testing your understanding…
Can you tell the difference between a
direct quotation and a paraphrase?
Click on the correct answer for each of
the following samples.
Direct Quotation vs. Paraphrase
Model #1
In his book on Google’s business
strategy, John Battelle states,
“…Google had more than its finger on
the pulse of our culture, it was directly
jacked into the culture’s nervous
system” (2).
This is an example of
DIRECT QUOTATION
This is an example of
PARAPHRASE
You must choose from the buttons
at the bottom of the page.
Read the situation and then choose
one of the options presented.
Click here to
return to previous slide
Paraphrase
Sorry, no. You are incorrect.
The student did not paraphrase--she
used a direct quotation. The quotation
marks give it away:
In his book on Google’s business strategy, John
Battelle states: “…Google had more than its finger
on the pulse of our culture, it was directly jacked
into the culture’s nervous system” (2).
Direct Quotation


Easy, right? If you see quotation
marks, it is a direct quotation.
Any time you use the exact words of
a source, you must surround them in
quotation marks and indicate the
source.
Direct Quotation vs. Paraphrase
Model #2
Battelle’s argument is based on a
memo written by Google CEO Eric
Schmidt. The memo reveals that
Google was focusing its attention on
corporate marketing budgets (153).
This is an example of
DIRECT QUOTATION
This is an example of
PARAPHRASE
You must choose from the green
buttons at the bottom of the page.
Read the situation and then choose
one of the options presented.
Click here to
return to previous slide
Paraphrase
Good job! Sample #2 was a
paraphrase.
Anytime a student rewrites a source’s
idea into his or her own words, the
user must give the source credit. This
is paraphrasing.
Direct Quotation
No. Read it again:
Battelle’s argument is based on a memo written by Google
CEO Eric Schmidt. The memo reveals that Google was
focusing its attention on corporate marketing budgets (153).
That example is a paraphrase.
You should know because the student
did not include quotation marks; she
rephrased the original into her own
written style; and she cited the source.
Direct Quotation vs. Paraphrase
Model #3
As he explains the importance of choosing
the best searchable keywords to allow
others to find a website, Battelle presents a
comparison to the Greek story of The
Odyssey, “Is [being known to a wide
audience] not what every person longs for—
what Odysseus chose over Kalypso’s
nameless immortality—to die, but to be
known forever?” (284).
This is an example of
DIRECT QUOTATION
This is an example of
PARAPHRASE
You must choose from the green
buttons at the bottom of the page.
Read the situation and then choose
one of the options presented.
Click here to
return to previous slide
Paraphrase

You are incorrect. The example was
a direct quotation. Look at it again:
In explaining the importance of searchable
functions, Battelle reveals his insight into the heart
of mankind, “Is that not what every person longs
for—what Odysseus chose over Kalypso’s nameless
immortality—to die, but to be known forever?”
(284).

The student included quotation
marks, indicating that he used the
exact words of the original source.
Therefore, it is a direct quotation.
Direct Quotation




Correct!
The use of the exact words of the
source makes it a direct quotation.
The student shows readers that it is
a direct quotation by using quotation
marks.
Additionally, he provides information
to help the reader identify the
source.
So, you know the difference
between a direct quotation
and a paraphrase…
Now what?
Definition of Plagiarism

Plagiarism is:
• To steal the words or ideas of another
person
• To pass off the words or ideas of
another person as one’s own

Further:
• It does not matter whether the theft of
words or ideas is intentional or
accidental.
• Either way, it is plagiarism.
Why should you bother?
Four good reasons for citing sources in
your work:
• Citing reliable information gives
credibility to your work.
• Cheating is unethical behavior.
• It is only fair to give credit to the
source—otherwise, you are stealing the
source’s ideas.
• The consequences are severe—
plagiarism is not worth the risk.
You probably have two
questions:
(1) What do I need to cite?
(2) How do I cite?
Read on for the answers…
What do I need to cite?

This chart will
help you decide
what must be
cited.
• It was created by
Robert A. Harris in
The Plagiarism
Handbook.
Did you
think of
it?
Yes.
No.
Is it
common
knowledge?
Yes.
No.
Cite it.
Do not cite it.
So—the rule is:
If you created it,
you do not need
to cite the source.
If you did not
create the
content, you must
cite the source.
Did you
think of
it?
Yes.
No.
Is it
common
knowledge?
Yes.
No.
Cite it.
Do not cite it.
The one exception to
that rule is for “common
knowledge.”
You do not need to cite
the source of an
unoriginal piece of
information IF:
(1) an educated person
should know the
information,
Did you
think of
it?
Yes.
No.
Is it
common
knowledge?
Yes.
OR
No.
(2) it is a provable fact
that could be found in a
general encyclopedia.
Cite it.
Do not cite it.
So, you don’t need to cite a fact,
but you must cite the source of opinions
and ideas that are not your own.
And, you must cite any time you use the exact
words of the source—even if the words are
presenting common knowledge.
So, you don’t need to cite a fact,
for example: Ayn Rand wrote Anthem.
OR
Ayn Rand was born in 1905.
but you must cite the source of opinions
and ideas that are not your own.
for example: Dorothy Gale believed that Anthem is an inspiring story (75).
OR
According to Joe Smith, Equality 7-2521 represents the human spirit (15).
And, you must cite any time you use the exact
words of the source—even if the words are
presenting common knowledge.
You must always cite the source of ANY direct quotation.
Take one
more look
at this
chart!
If the idea and
the words are
yours, you do
not need to cite.
Did you
think of
it?
Yes.
No.
Is it
common
knowledge?
Yes.
No.
Cite it.
Do not cite it.
So, let’s check to see that you
understand when you need to cite
the source and when you don’t…
Answer the following questions and
choose the correct answer.
Test Case #1
Jack isn’t sure if he needs to cite the source of the
information below. He found the fact online.
“Abraham Lincoln was our 16th president.”
What do you think? What should Jack do? Pick one of
the answers below.
Cite the source.
This means he will:
(1) Either:
a) Surround with quotation marks, or
b) Put the quotation into his own words,
changing the syntax, structure,
& organization
(2) Include a lead-in giving the source’s name,
(3) Give the page number, and
(4) List the source in a bibliography
Do not cite the
source.
This means that the information is a
commonly reported fact. It is generally
known and available from many sources.
(1) Jack should verify the information in at
least two sources, then
(2) Jack will write the well-known
information in his own words.
You must choose from the buttons
at the bottom of the page.
Read the situation and then choose
one of the options presented.
Click here to
return to previous slide
You are incorrect.
In this case,
citation is not necessary.


Jack does not need to cite the source
of quote the information because it is
general knowledge.
Because Abraham Lincoln’s status as
the 16th President of the US is a fact
that is verifiable in many places, Jack
can use the information without
citation.
You are correct!
Jack does not need to cite this
information.


Jack does not need to cite the source
of quote the information because it is
general knowledge.
Because Abraham Lincoln’s status as
the 16th President of the US is a fact
that is verifiable in many places, Jack
can use the information without
citation.
Test Case #2
In her paper on Affirmative Action, Jill found one source
explaining that Affirmative Action “evens the field of play by
wreaking equity on all players.”
In her paper, Jill uses the phrase “wreaking equity” but she puts
all the other parts of the source into her own words.
What should Jill do? Pick one of the answers below.
Cite the source.
Not cite the source.
This means she will:
(1) Either:
a) Surround with quotation marks, or
b) Put the quotation into her own words,
changing the syntax, structure,
& organization
This means that the information is generally
known and available from multiple sources.
(2) Include a lead-in giving the source’s name,
(2) Jill will write the well-known
information in his own words.
(3) Give the page number, and
(4) List the source in a bibliography
(1) Jill should verify the information in at
least two sources, then
(3) Jill should make a bibliographic citation
for use on her Works Consulted page.
You must choose from the buttons
at the bottom of the page.
Read the situation and then choose
one of the options presented.
Click here to
return to previous slide
You are correct!
Jill must cite this information.


Jill needs to cite the source of the
paraphrase because the idea belongs
to the source.
Further, because Jill uses the unique
phrase “wreaking equity,” she must
include that phrase in quotation
marks, indicating that it is a direct
quotation from the source.
You are incorrect.
In this case, citation is necessary.


Jill needs to cite the source of the
paraphrase because the idea belongs
to the source.
Further, because Jill uses the unique
phrase “wreaking equity,” she must
include that phrase in quotation
marks, indicating that it is a direct
quotation from the source.
Test Case #3
Gretel found a very helpful article in an online
database. She very carefully made sure that she
rewrote the content of the article using her own
personal style; she changed the author’s syntax and
organization so that it fit seamlessly into her paper.
What should Gretel do?
Cite the source.
Not cite the source.
This means she will:
(1) Either:
a) Surround with quotation marks, or
b) Put the quotation into his own words,
changing the syntax, structure,
& organization
This means that the information is generally
known and available from multiple sources.
(2) Include a lead-in giving the source’s name,
(2) Gretel will write the well-known
information in his own words.
(3) Give the page number, and
(4) List the source in a bibliography
(1) Gretel should verify the information in at
least two sources, then
(3) Gretel must include a bibliographic citation
on her Works Consulted page.
You must choose from the buttons
at the bottom of the page.
Read the situation and then choose
one of the options presented.
Click here to
return to previous slide
You are correct.
In this case, citation is required.


Gretel paraphrases the source’s idea
and content. She must give credit to
the source.
She must provide her audience with
the source of the idea that she
borrowed.
You are incorrect!
Gretel must cite the source of this
information, even though she put it
in her own words.


Gretel paraphrases the ideas of the
source, so she must cite the identity
of the source.
Gretel must provide her audience
with the source of the material that
she borrowed.
So, you can identify what
must have a citation…
Now you need to know
how to use and cite a
source!
How to Cite a Source

It’s easy. Just provide your audience with
the source of any ideas or words that are
not your own.
• First, carefully mark the beginning and end of
the source’s words or ideas.
• Then, provide a bibliography to show where the
borrowed material originated.

In fact, listing your sources shows your
audience that you are an informed, well
researched writer!
How to Cite Direct Quotations

Provide a bibliographic entry to show where the
borrowed material originated.


Park, Beth L. Understanding Ayn Rand’s Anthem. Lebo
University Press: Pittsburgh, 2008.
Carefully mark the beginning and end of the
source’s words or idea.
• Use a signal phrase to introduce the source.
• Use quotation marks to surround the words of the source.
• Provide the page number (or another citation) after the
closing quotation marks.
EXAMPLE:
According to literary critic Beth L. Parks, Equality 7-2521
finds peace through “his search for the height of his own
potential” (24).
How to Cite Paraphrases

Provide a bibliographic entry to show where the borrowed
material originated.


Park, Beth L. Understanding Ayn Rand’s Anthem. Lebo University
Press: Pittsburgh, 2008.
Carefully mark the beginning and end of the source’s words or
idea.
• Use a signal phrase to introduce the source
• Put the source’s original words into your own words:



It isn’t just about using synonyms to replace words.
You must change the syntax, sentence structure, and organization of
the original.
If you find yourself just changing a word here or there, ask yourself if
a direct quotation would work. If it would work, then use a direct
quotation.
• Provide the page number (or another citation) after the closing
quotation marks.
EXAMPLE:
According to literary critic Beth L. Parks, Equality 7-2521
separates himself from the society by striving to improve
the world around him (24).
It can be said in a bunch of
different ways…
It can be said in a bunch of
different ways…
It can be said in a bunch of
different ways…
It can be said in a bunch of
different ways…
Enclose the
borrowed
It can be said in a bunch of
different ways…
Enclose the
borrowed
It can be said in a bunch of
different ways…
Enclose the
borrowed
It can be said in a bunch of
different ways…
But, they all mean the same thing…
Provide a clear indication
of any words or ideas
that are not your own.
Enclose the
borrowed
Final Directions:




Your teacher has a short written quiz for
you to take on the subject of plagiarism.
At the end of the quiz is an honor code
statement. You will sign it in order to
verify that you have received this training.
You will then have your parent sign the
honor code.
Your English teacher will collect these
signed forms.
Sources Cited
Harris, Robert A. The Plagiarism
Handbook: Strategies for Preventing,
Detecting, and Dealing with
Plagiarism. Pyrczak Publishing: Los
Angeles, 2001.
Works Consulted
DeSena, Laura Hennessey. Preventing Plagiarism:
Tips and Techniques. National Council of
Teachers of English: Urbana, IL, 2007.
Valenza, Joyce Kasman. “What is Plagiarism? (And
Why You Should Care).” Springfield High School
Media Center Information Literacy Lessons.
Springfield School District.
End of presentation.

If you have questions or suggestions,
please see your teacher or e-mail
Ms. Kramer ([email protected])
or Mrs. Miller ([email protected]),
the creators of this presentation.

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