Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion

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Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Chapter 9
Motivation and Emotion
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Motivation
 Dynamics of behavior that initiate, sustain, and direct or
terminate actions
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
A Model of Motivational Activities
• Model of how motivated activities work
• Need: Internal deficiency; causes
• Drive: Energized motivational state (e.g., hunger,
thirst); activates a…
• Response: Action or series of actions designed to
attain a…
• Goal: Target of motivated behavior
• Incentive Value: Goal’s appeal beyond its ability to fill a
need
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Types of Motives
• Primary Motive: Innate (inborn) motives based on
biological needs we must meet to survive
• Stimulus Motive: Innate needs for stimulation and
information
• Secondary Motive: Based on learned needs, drives, and
goals
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Hunger: Big Mac Attack?
• Homeostasis: Body equilibrium; balance
• Influences on hunger
• Obesity
– Internal
• Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1): Substance in brain that
terminates eating
• Hypothalamus: Brain structure; regulates many aspects of
motivation and emotion, including hunger, thirst, and sexual
behavior
– External
• External stimuli that tend to encourage hunger or elicit eating;
these cues may cause you to eat even if you are stuffed
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Behavioral Dieting
• Weight reduction based on changing exercise and eating
habits and not on temporary self-starvation
• Some keys
– Start with a complete physical
– Exercise
– Be committed to weight loss
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Behavioral Dieting (cont'd)
• Observe yourself, keep an eating diary, and keep a chart
of daily progress.
• Eat based on hunger, not on taste or learned habits that
tell you to always clean your plate.
• Avoid snacks.
• Reward yourself if you change eating habits and punish
yourself if you do not.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa
• Active self-starvation or sustained loss of appetite that
seems to have psychological origins
– Control issues seem to be involved
– Very difficult to effectively treat
– Affects adolescent females overwhelmingly
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa
(Binge-Purge Syndrome)
• Excessive eating usually followed by self-induced
vomiting and/or taking laxatives
– Difficult to treat
– Prozac approved by FDA to treat bulimia nervosa
– Affects females overwhelmingly
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Causes of Anorexia Nervosa and
Bulimia Nervosa
• Anorectics and bulimics have exaggerated fears of
becoming fat; they think they are fat when the opposite is
true!
• Bulimics are obsessed with food and weight; anorectics
with perfect control.
• Anorectics will often be put on a “weight-gain” diet to
restore weight.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Thirst and Pain
• Extracellular Thirst: When water is lost from fluids
surrounding the cells of the body
• Intracellular Thirst: When fluid is drawn out of cells
because of increased concentration of salts and minerals
outside the cell
– Best satisfied by drinking water
• Pain Avoidance: An episodic drive
– Distinct episodes when bodily damage takes place or
is about to occur
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Stimulus Drives - Arousal
• Reflect needs for information, exploration, manipulation,
and sensory input
• Sensation Seeking/ Inverted U: Trait of people who
prefer high levels of stimulation (e.g., the contestants on
“Eco-Challenge” and “Fear Factor”)
• Yerkes-Dodson Law: If a task is simple, it is best for
arousal to be high; if it is complex, lower levels of arousal
provide for the best performance
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Learned Motives
• Social Motives: Acquired by growing up in a particular
society or culture
• Need for Achievement (nAch): Desire to meet some
internal standard of excellence
• Need for Power: Desire to have impact or control over
others
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Abraham Maslow and Needs
• Hierarchy of Human Needs: Maslow’s ordering of needs
based on presumed strength or potency; some needs
are more powerful than others and thus will influence
your behavior to a greater degree
• Basic Needs: First four levels of needs in Maslow’s
hierarchy
– Lower needs tend to be more potent than higher
needs
• Growth Needs: Higher-level needs associated with selfactualization
• Meta-Needs: Needs associated with impulses for selfactualization
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Types of Motivation
• Intrinsic Motivation: Motivation coming from within, not
from external rewards; based on personal enjoyment of
a task
• Extrinsic Motivation: Based on obvious external rewards,
obligations, or similar factors (e.g., pay, grades)
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Emotions
• State characterized by physiological arousal and
changes in facial expressions, gestures, posture,
and subjective feelings
• Physiological Changes: Include heart rate, blood
pressure, perspiration, and other involuntary
bodily responses
• Emotional Expression: Outward signs of what a
person is feeling
• Emotional Feelings: Private emotional
experience
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Plutchik’s First Four Primary Emotions
• Most basic emotions are:
– Fear
– Surprise
– Sadness
– Disgust
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Plutchik’s Last Four Primary Emotions (cont'd)
–
–
–
–
Anger
Anticipation
Joy
Acceptance
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Brain and Emotion
• Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): Neural system that
connects brain with internal organs and glands
• Sympathetic Branch: Part of ANS that activates body for
emergency action
• Parasympathetic Branch: Part of ANS that quiets body
and conserves energy
– Parasympathetic Rebound: Overreaction to intense
emotion
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Lie Detectors
• Polygraph: Device that records heart rate, blood
pressure, respiration, and galvanic skin response (GSR);
lie detector
• GSR: Measures sweating
• Irrelevant Questions: Neutral, emotional questions in a
polygraph test
• Relevant Questions: Questions to which only someone
guilty should react by becoming anxious or emotional
• Control Questions: Questions that almost always
provoke anxiety in a polygraph (e.g. “Have you ever
taken any office supplies?”)
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Body Language (Kinesics)
• Study of communication through body movement,
posture, gestures, and facial expressions
• Facial Blends: Mix of two or more basic expressions
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Three Types of Facial Expressions
• Pleasantness-Unpleasantness: Degree to which a
person is experiencing pleasure or displeasure
• Attention-Rejection: Degree of attention given to a
person or object
• Activation: Degree of arousal a person is experiencing
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
Theories of Emotion
• James-Lange Theory: Emotional feelings follow bodily
arousal and come from awareness of such arousal.
• Cannon-Bard Theory: The thalamus (in brain) causes
emotional feelings and bodily arousal to occur at the
same time.
• Schachter’s Cognitive Theory: Emotions occur when a
label is applied to general physical arousal.
• Attribution: Mental process of assigning causes to
events; attributing arousal to a certain source.
• Facial Feedback Hypothesis: Sensations from facial
expressions and help define what emotion someone
feels.
Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Chapter 9
A Modern View of Emotion
• Emotional Appraisal: Evaluating personal meaning of a
stimulus
• Emotional Intelligence: Combination of skills, including
empathy, self-control, self-awareness, sensitivity to
feelings of others, persistence, and self-motivation

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