Strand I: Using Intensive Intervention to Meet the Academic and Behavior Needs of Struggling Learners Strand Leaders: Louis Danielson, Ph.D. Rebecca O. Zumeta, Ph.D. National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII) American Institutes for Research, Washington, DC Strand Objectives Understand strategies for identifying, intervening, and evaluating progress of students with intensive intervention needs in academics, specifically in reading and mathematics. Understand strategies for identifying, intervening, and evaluating progress of students with intensive behavioral needs. Discuss common implementation challenges when planning for intensive intervention. 2 Today’s Sessions (Download slides at www.intensiveintervention.org) Time Session Title Presenters 8:00–9:00 a.m. Addressing the Needs of Students With Persistent Math Difficulties Through Intensive Intervention Lynn Fuchs, Sarah Powell, and Rebecca Zumeta 9:15–10:15 a.m. Addressing the Needs of Students With Persistent Reading Difficulties Through Intensive Intervention Doug Fuchs, Devin Kearns, and Laura Magnuson 10:30–11:30 a.m. Planning Function-Based Interventions for Students With Intensive Behavior Needs Gail Chan, Lori Newcomer, and Joseph Wehby 1:30–2:30 p.m. Lou Danielson, Allison Gandhi, Chris Lemons, and Rebecca Zumeta Confronting Implementation Challenges When Providing Intensive Intervention 3 Addressing the Needs of Students With Persistent Math Difficulties Through Intensive Intervention Lynn S. Fuchs, Ph.D., Vanderbilt University Sarah R. Powell, Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin Rebecca O. Zumeta, Ph.D., AIR Today’s Presentation Rationale for intensive intervention Overview of the data-based individualization (DBI) process Methods for intensifying instruction in mathematics Case example Time for questions 5 What is Intensive Intervention? Intensive intervention addresses severe and persistent learning or behavior difficulties. Intensive intervention should be: Driven by data Characterized by increased intensity (e.g., smaller group, expanded time) and individualization of academic instruction and/or behavioral supports 6 What Intensive Intervention… Is… Is Not… Individualized based on student needs More intense, often with substantively different content AND pedagogy Comprised of more frequent and precise progress monitoring A single approach A manual A preset program More of the same Tier 1 instruction More of the same Tier 2 instruction 7 Why Do We Need Intensive Intervention? Low academic achievement Dropout rates Arrest rates 8 Why Do We Need Intensive Intervention? More Help Validated programs are not universally effective programs; 3 to 5 percent of students need more help (Fuchs et al., 2008; NCII, 2013). More Practice Students with intensive needs often require 10–30 times more practice than peers to learn new information (Gersten et al., 2008). 9 Who Needs DBI? Students with disabilities who are not making adequate progress in their current instructional program Students who present with very low academic achievement and/or high-intensity or high-frequency behavior problems (typically those with disabilities) Students in a tiered intervention system who have not responded to secondary intervention programs delivered with fidelity 10 What is NCII’s Approach to Intensive Intervention? Data-Based Individualization (DBI): A systematic method for using data to determine when and how to provide more intensive intervention: Origins in data-based program modification/experimental teaching were first developed at the University of Minnesota (Deno & Mirkin, 1977). It is a process, not a single intervention program or strategy. It is not a one-time fix, but an ongoing process comprising intervention and assessment adjusted over time. 11 DBI Assumptions Students with disabilities who require special education need specially designed instruction to progress toward standards. A data-driven, systematized approach can help educators develop programs likely to yield success for students with intensive needs. 12 DBI Assumptions DBI is a distinctively different and more intensive approach to intervention, compared to primary prevention’s (Tier 1’s) core program and secondary prevention’s (Tier 2’s) validated, supplementary programs (NCII, 2013). In a longstanding program of field-based randomized controlled trials, DBI has demonstrated improved reading, math, and spelling outcomes, compared with business-as-usual special education practice (e.g., Fuchs, Fuchs, & Hamlett, 1989). 13 Five DBI Steps 1. Secondary intervention program, delivered with greater intensity 2. Progress monitoring 3. Diagnostic assessment 4. Adaptation 5. Continued progress monitoring, with adaptations occurring as needed to ensure adequate progress 14 A Bird’s Eye View of DBI 15 Is DBI the Same as RTI? Special Education? Many components of DBI are consistent with elements of special education and tiered service delivery systems. Tiered Interventions (RTI, MTSS, PBIS) Special Education Universal, secondary, and tertiary interventions Individualized program Progress monitoring Team-based decisions based on data Team-based decisions based on data Progress monitoring 16 Intensive Intervention in Mathematics 17 Principles for Intensive Intervention Smaller Steps Worked Examples Precise Language Repeated Practice Repeat Language Error Correction Student Explains Fading Support Modeling Fluency Manipulatives Move On 18 Smaller Steps Use a task analysis to break problems into smaller steps Look at the first fraction. Multiply the numerator and denominator by the denominator of the second fraction. Rewrite. Look at the second fraction. Multiply the numerator and denominator by the denominator of the first fraction. Rewrite. Write addition and equal signs. Add numerators and rewrite denominator. Reduce fraction to lowest terms (when necessary). 19 Precise Language Generate a list of important vocabulary with studentfriendly definitions Provide directions and instruction with precise language • Instead of saying, “The denominator is the bottom number,” say: The denominator is the whole divided into equal parts. 20 Repeat Language Repeat important vocabulary and definitions, algorithms, and steps for problem solving Whenever you need to solve a word problem, even a word problem with fractions, use the mnemonic RIDE. R tells you to Read the problem. I tells you to Identify important information. D tells you to Determine the operation. E tells you to Enter the correct numbers and solve. 21 Student Explains Students explain their thinking in their own words. Helps the teacher check for understanding of concepts, correct use of vocabulary, and understanding of procedures. Teacher may need to model talk-alouds and give the student opportunities for practice with feedback. In this problem, I multiply both the numerator and the denominator by 5. Now, look at the next problem. Explain to me your multiplication. 22 Modeling Model concepts and procedures To find a common denominator, I multiply the numerator and denominator of the first fraction by the denominator of the second fraction. The denominator of the second fraction is 3, so I multiply by 3. So, the numerator of the first fraction is 2. We multiply 2 times 3. What’s 2 times 3? (6) I write 6 here. The denominator of the second fraction is 9. We multiply 9 times 3. What’s 9 times 3? (27) I write 27 here. 23 Manipulatives Use manipulatives to demonstrate concepts and procedures 24 Worked Examples Provide a worked example to promote discussion of how the work was completed 3 + 1 8 3 9 8 24 + 24 = 17 = 24 25 Repeated Practice Provide multiple opportunities for repeated practice of skills Examples: • Practice finding common denominators for addition and subtraction using multiplication • Practice multiplication facts • Practice discriminating between addition of fractions and multiplication of fractions 26 Error Correction Provide error correction for mistakes in the student’s work Let’s look at this part again. You need to multiply both the numerator and denominator by 4. The numerator is 2. What’s 2 times 4? (8) Yes. 2 times 4 is 8. Write 8 here. The denominator is 5. What’s 5 times 4? (20) Yes. 5 times 4 is 20. Write 20 here. 27 Fading Support Begin fading support as the student becomes more confident with a skill Remember to multiply by the denominator of the second fraction. Go ahead and try it on your own. 28 Fluency Provide opportunities to build fluency with a skill Let’s practice our multiplication facts so that finding common denominators is quick and easy. 29 Move On When the student demonstrates proficiency with a task, it is time for the teacher to move on. You’ve learned how to add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators, so now let’s learn how to multiply fractions. 30 31 Meet Molly Sixth-grade student Individualized education program goal in mathematics: Given 25 problems from the fifth-grade curriculum, Molly will write 44 correct digits in answers in six minutes by the end of the school year. 32 33 34 35 NCII Resources Visit www.intensiveintervention.org for: Tools charts to identify intervention and progress-monitoring tools in academics and behavior DBI Training Series Webinars (Live webinar April 29, 2014 @ 3 pm EDT) Sample adapted activities and supplemental materials Ask the Expert videos Reports Newsletter 36 Tools Charts 37 DBI Training Series • Slides and speaker notes • Activities • Coaching guides 38 Webinars Live webinar April 29, 2014 at 3 pm Eastern. Sign up and join our mailing list: www.intensiveintervention.org 39 Sample Activities and Materials 40 In Summary Generally effective programs are not universally effective programs—some students require more intensive support. DBI comprises assessment and intervention practices tailored to meet students’ individual learning needs. Specific mathematics instructional strategies, combined with regular progress monitoring, can enhance learning for students with intensive needs. 41 References Aud, S., Hussar, W., Johnson, F., Kena, G., Roth, E., Manning, E., Wang, X., & Zhang, J.. (2012). The condition of education 2012 (NCES 2012-045). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2012/2012045.pdf Deno, S. L., & Mirkin, P. K. (1977). Data-based program modification: A manual. Minneapolis, MN: Leadership Training Institute for Special Education.. Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1989). Effects of instrumental use of curriculum-based measurement to enhance instructional programs. Remedial and Special Education, 10, 43–52. Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Powell, S. R., Seethaler, P. M., Cirino, P. T., & Fletcher, J. M. (2008). Intensive intervention for students with mathematics disabilities: Seven principles of effective practice. Learning Disability Quarterly, 31, 79–92. Gersten, R., Compton, D., Connor, C. M., Dimino, J., Santoro, L., Linan-Thompson, S., & Tilly, W. D. (2008). Assisting students struggling with reading: Response to intervention and multi-tier intervention for reading in the primary grades. A practice guide (NCEE 2009-4045). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/PracticeGuide.aspx?sid=3 42 References National Center for Education Statistics. (2013). The Nation’s Report Card: A first look: 2013 mathematics and reading (NCES 2014-451). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved from http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_math_2013 National Center on Intensive Intervention. (2013). Data-based individualization: A framework for intensive intervention. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education. Planty, M., Hussar, W., Snyder, T., Provasnik, S., Kena, G., Dinkes, R., KewalRamani, A., & Kemp, J. (2008). The condition of education 2008 (NCES 2008-031). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2008/2008031.pdf Sanford, C., Newman, L., Wagner, M., Cameto, R., Knokey, A.-M., & Shaver, D. (2011). The post-high school outcomes of young adults with disabilities up to 6 years after high school. Key findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) (NCSER 2011-3004). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Retrieved from http://www.ies.ed.gov/ncser/pubs/20113004/pdf/20113004.pdf 43 Questions? National Center on Intensive Intervention 1000 Thomas Jefferson Street NW Washington, DC 20007-3835 www.intensiveintervention.org Email: [email protected] 44 NCII Disclaimer This presentation was produced under the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Award No. H326Q110005. Celia Rosenquist serves as the project officer. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or polices of the U.S. Department of Education. No official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education of any product, commodity, service or enterprise mentioned in this website is intended or should be inferred.