### Chapter 7

```Slide 7.1
Chapter 7
Selecting Samples
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.2
Selecting samples
Population, sample and individual cases
Source: Saunders et al. (2009)
Figure 7.1 Population, sample and individual cases
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.3
The need to sample
Sampling- a valid alternative to a census when
• A survey of the entire population is impracticable
• Budget constraints restrict data collection
• Time constraints restrict data collection
• Results from data collection are needed quickly
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.4
Overview of sampling techniques
Sampling techniques
Figure 7.2 Sampling techniques
Source: Saunders et al. (2009)
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.5
The sampling frame
• The sampling frame for any probability
sample is a complete list of all the cases in
the population from which your sample will
be drown.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.6
Probability sampling
The four stage process
1. Identify sampling frame from research objectives
2. Decide on a suitable sample size
3. Select the appropriate technique and the sample
4. Check that the sample is representative
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.7
Identifying a suitable sampling frame
Key points to consider
• Problems of using existing databases
• Extent of possible generalisation from the sample
• Validity and reliability
• Avoidance of bias
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.8
Sample size
Choice of sample size is influenced by
• Confidence needed in the data
• Margin of error that can be tolerated
• Types of analyses to be undertaken
• Size of the sample population and distribution
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.9
The importance of response rate
Key considerations
• Non- respondents and analysis of refusals
• Obtaining a representative sample
• Calculating the active response rate
• Estimating response rate and sample size
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.10
Selecting a sampling technique
Five main techniques used for a probability sample
• Simple random
• Systematic
• Stratified random
• Cluster
• Multi-stage
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.11
Simple random(Random
sampling)
• Involves you selecting at random frame
using either random number tables, a
computer or an online random number
generator such as Research Randomizer
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.12
Systematic sampling
• Systematic sampling involves you selecting the sample at
regular intervals from the sampling frame.
1. Number each of the cases in your sampling frame with a
unique number . The first is numbered 0, the second 1
and so on.
2. Select the first case using a random number.
3. Calculate the sample fraction.
4. Select subsequent cases systematically using the sample
fraction to determine the frequency of selection
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.13
Stratified random sampling
• Stratified random sampling is a modification of random
sampling in which you divide the population into two or
more relevant and significant strata based in a one or a
number of attributes. In effect, your sampling frame is
divided into a number of subsets. A random sample
(simple or systematic) is then drown from each of the
strata. Consequently stratified sampling shares many of the
systematic sampling
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.14
Cluster Sampling
• Is on the surface, similar to stratified as you
need to divide the population into discrete
groups prior to sampling. The groups are
termed clusters in this form of sampling and
can be based in any naturally occurring
grouping. For example, you could group
your data by type of manufacturing firm or
geographical area
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.15
Cluster Sampling
• For cluster sampling your sampling frame is
the complete list of clusters rather than
complete list of individual cases within
population, you then select a few cluster
normally using simple random sampling,.
Data are then collected from every case
within the selected clusters
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.16
Multi-stage sampling (multistage cluster sampling
• It is a development of cluster sampling, it is normally used
to overcome problems associated with a geographically
dispersed population when face to face contact is needed or
where it is expensive and time consuming to construct a
sampling frame for a large geographical area. However,
like cluster sampling you can use it for any discrete
groups, including those not are geographically based. The
technique involves taking a series of cluster samples, each
involving some from of random sampling
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.17
Quota sampling
• It is entirely non random and it is normally used
for interview surveys. It is based on the premise
that your sample will represent the population as
the variability in your sample for various quota
variables is the same as that in population. Quota
sampling is therefore a type of stratified sample in
which selection of cases within strata is entirely
non-random
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.18
Quota sampling
• Divide the population into specific groups.
• Calculate a quota for each group based on relevant and
available data.
• Give each interviewer an ‘assignment', which states the
number of cases in each quota from which they must
collect data.
• Combine the data collected by interviewers to provide the
full sample.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.19
Quota sampling
• Quota sampling has a number of advantages over the probabilistic
techniques. In particular, it is less costly and can be set up very
quickly. If, as with television audience research surveys, your data
collection needs to be undertaken very quickly then quota sampling
frame and, therefore may be the only technique you can use if one is
not available. Quota sampling is normally used for large population .
For small population , it is usually possible to obtain a sampling frame.
Decisions on sample size are governed by the need to have sufficient
responses in each quota to enable subsequent statistical analyses to be
undertaken. This often necessitates a sample size of between 2000 and
5000.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.20
Purposive sampling
• Purposive or judgemental sampling enables you to use
your judgment to select cases that will best enable you to
objectives. This form of sample is often used when
working with very small samples such as in case research
and when you wish to select cases that are particularly
informative . Purposive sampling can also be used by
researchers adopting the grounded theory strategy. For
such research, findings from data collected from your
initial sample inform the way you extend your sample into
subsequent cases.such samples, however can not be
considered to be statistically representative of the total
population.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.21
Continued
• The logic on which you base your strategy
for selecting cases for a purposive sample
should be dependent on your research
question(s)and objectives. Patton (2002)
emphasizes this point by contrasting the
need to select information-rich cases in
purposive sampling with the need to be
statistically representative in probability
sampling.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.22
Extreme case or deviant
sampling
• Extreme case or deviant sampling focuses on
unusual or special cases on the basis that the data
collected about these unusual or extreme outcomes
will enable you to learn the most and to answer
more effectively. This is often based on the
premise that findings from extreme cases will be
relevant in understanding or explaining more
typical cases (patton 2002).
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.23
Heterogeneous or maximum
variation sampling
• Heterogeneous or maximum variation sampling
enables you to collect data to explain and describe
the key themes that can be observed. Although
this might appear as contradiction, as a small
sample may contain cases that are completely
different, Patton (2002) argues that this is in fact a
strength. Any patterns that do emerge are likely to
be of particular interest and value and represent
the key themes. In addition, the data collected
should enable you to document uniqueness.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.24
Continued
• To ensure maximum variation within a
sample Patton (2002) suggests you identify
selection criteria)prior to selecting your
sample.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.25
homogenous sampling
• In direct contrast to heterogeneous sampling
, homogenous sampling focuses on one
particular sub-group in which all the sample
members are similar. This enables you to to
study the group in great depth.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.26
Critical case sampling
• Critical case sampling selects critical cases
on the bases that they can make a point
dramatically or because they are important.
The focus of data collections to understand
what is happening in each critical case so
that logical generalizations can be made.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.27
Continued
• Patton (2002) outlines a number of clues that
suggest critical cases these can be summarized by
the questions such as:
• If it happens there, will it happen everywhere?
• If they are having problems, can you be sure that
everyone will have problems?
• If they cannot understand the process, is it likely
that no one will be able to understand the process?
•
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.28
Typical case sampling
• In contrast of critical case sampling, typical case sampling
is usually used as a part of a research project to provide an
illustrative profile using a representative case. Such a
sample enables you to provide an illustration of what is
and may be unfamiliar with the subject matter. It is not
intended to be defintative
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.29
Snowball sampling
• Is commonly used when it is difficult to identify members
of desired population. For example people who are
working while claiming unemployment benefit you
therefore, need to:
1. Make contact with one or two cases in the population.
2. Ask these cases to identify further cases.
3. Ask theses new cases to identify further new cases (and
so on)
4. Stop when either no new cases are given or the sample is
as large as manageable
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.30
Self selecting sampling
• It occurs when you allow each case usually
individuals, to identify their desire to take
part in the research you therefore
1. Publicize your need for cases, either by
by asking them to take part.
2. Collect data from those who respond
•
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.31
Self-selection sampling
• Publicity for convenience samples can take many forms. These
population are likely to read, postings on appropriate Internet
newsgroups and discussion groups, hyperlinks from other
websites as well as letters or emails of invitation to colleagues
and friends (Box 7.14). Cases that self-select objectives. In
some instances ,as in research question(s) or stated on the
management of the survivors of downsizing (Thornhill et
al.1997), this is exactly what the researcher wants. In this
research a letter in the personnel trade press generated a list of
self-selected organisations that were interested in the research
topic , considered it important and were willing to devote time
to being interviewed.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.32
Convenience sampling
• Convenience sampling (or haphazard sampling) involves selecting
haphazardly those cases that are easiest to obtain for your sample, such
as the person interviewed at random in a shopping centre for a
television programme or the book about entrepreneurship you find at
the airport (Box 7.15). The sample selection process is continued until
your required sample size has been reached. Although this technique of
sampling is used widely , it is prone to bias and influences that are
beyond your control, as the cases appear in the sample only because of
the ease of obtaining them. Often the sample is intended to represent the
total population , for example managers taking an MBA course as a
surrogate for all managers! In such instances the selection of individual
cases is likely to have introduced bias to the sample ,meaning that
subsequent generalisations are likely to be at best flawed. These
problems are less important where there is little variation in the
population, and such samples often serve as pilots to studies using more
instructed samples.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.33
Probability sampling
• With probability samples the chance , or probability, of
each case being selected from the population is known
And usually equal to all cases. This means that it is
possible to answer research questions and to achieve
objectives that require you to estimate statistically the
characteristics of the population from the sample.
Consequently, probability sampling is often associated
with survey and experimental research strategies.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.34
Non probability samples
• The probability of each case being selected from the total
population is not known and it is impossible to answer
research questions or to address research objectives that
require you to make statistical inferences about the
characteristics of the population. You may still be able to
generalize from non probability samples about the
population, but non on statistical grounds
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.35
Non- probability sampling (1)
Key considerations
• Deciding on a suitable sample size
• Selecting the appropriate technique
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.36
Non- probability sampling (2)
Sampling techniques
•
•
•
•
•
Quota sampling (larger populations)
Purposive sampling
Snowball sampling
Self-selection sampling
Convenience sampling
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.37
Summary: Chapter 7
• Choice of sampling techniques depends upon the
research question(s) and their objectives
• Factors affecting sample size include:
- confidence needed in the findings
- accuracy required
- likely categories for analysis
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.38
Summary: Chapter 7
• Probability sampling requires a sampling frame and
can be more time consuming
• When a sampling frame is not possible, nonprobability sampling is used
• Many research projects use a combination of
sampling techniques
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2009
Slide 7.39
Summary: Chapter 7
All choices depend on the ability to gain