Global Warming - So What?

Report
Global Warming
So What? .
Dr. Gene Fry
February 2015
.
.
ºF
Daily Summer Highs, Averaged over 26 US Places
85.4
3-Year
Moving Average
84.9
84.4
83.9
83.4
82.9
82.4
Consider Salina, Kansas,
in the heart of wheat country,
breadbasket of the world.
81.9
1979
1984
1989
1994
1999
2004
2009
At +5.9ºF / century, by 2100 summer in Salina would be as hot as Dallas now.
Warming at 12.5ºF a century, by 2100 it would be as hot as Las Vegas now.
We should PREVENT this.
•
The analysis was extended thru 2013, to 128 cities across 47 states.
The results were generally similar, but warming was a little slower:
5.3ºF / century over 1978-2013 and 11.1ºF / over 1993-2013.
(Compare to 5.9ºF and 12.5ºF / century for 26 cities thru 2012.)
Warming was slower in coastal areas, especially Pacific & Alaska.
But it was faster in between, especially west of the Mississippi.
Warming was fastest where most of our food comes from.
Since 1992, Salina has warmed 73% faster than the US average.
Heat in the Heartland, sponsored by Bloomberg, Paulson & Steyer, Jan. 2015 •
Over 100 years,
Midwest summers can
grow 10-12°F hotter.
daily highs
if current emission trends continue
Missouri, Illinois
& Indiana grow
hotter than
Texas now.
Iowa & Ohio
get as hot.
Las Vegas had 114, 99, and 115 days above 95ºF over 2012-14. If current emission trends
continue, there is a 10-20% chance some orange area will be hotter than Las Vegas by 2100.
Michigan warms
the most.
It gets
Arizona hot.
Humidity and much more heat would make heat stroke conditions skyrocket in the Midwest.
3 days a year would be worse than any ever experienced anywhere in the US.
if current
emission
trends
continue
24-hour
average
Crop losses of 40-64% by 2100 are likely
for corn in the Corn Belt (IA, IL, IN, OH,
MO) and 8-38% by 2100 for soybeans in the
same states.
Winter wheat is barely affected.
if current emission trends continue
Earth’s 100-year surface warming rate
is 15-30 x the previous record.
The last times CO2 hit 400 ppm
(~4 and 14-15 million years ago),
Earth’s surface was ~7º and 10ºF warmer than now
and seas were 65 to 135 feet higher.
Kansas was Las Vegas hot &
Florida was mostly under water.
We should stop putting carbon in the air
&
remove carbon from the air
as fast as we put it in now.
So What?
Pay ranchers and farmers to move
carbon from the air back into soils.
Why? Carbon neutral is no longer enough.
We already have too much CO2 in the air.
Warming could well triple, even without more CO2.
Blame vanishing Arctic sea ice (about 1ºF warming),
phasing out coal’s sulfur emissions (ditto) &
warming Earth enough so energy out = in (ditto).
Too much heat can cut crop yields in half.
Don’t let our food supply dry up.
Give every American a $300 carbon tax credit each year.
Pay for it with a 3¢ / lb carbon tax, rising 5% / year. .
Replace CO2 regs.
Tax bad stuff, so we tax good stuff (income) less.
FOOD
.
WATER
Rainfall becomes more variable.
Planet-wide, we get a little more rain.
Around the Arctic gets lots more,
mid-latitudes (20-45º) less rain. .
Yet in any one place, we get
more hours and days without rain.
In other words,
we get more downpours and floods,
yet also longer, drier, hotter droughts.
Droughts Worsen.
Deserts Spread.
The Culprit?
Evaporation
Droughts Worsen .
Greenhouse Effect
Dark Earth absorbs sunlight.
Earth warms up and
radiates heat.
Greenhouse gases in the
air (GHGs) intercept some
outgoing radiation and
re-radiate it back down.
This warms Earth more.
More GHGs = warmer still.
Light surfaces reflect sunlight. Those surfaces don’t warm Earth much.
Changing a light surface (ice) to a dark one (water) warms Earth.
Changing a dark surface (forest) to a lighter one (desert) cools Earth.
Greenhouse Gases
• GHGs warm Earth by 32ºC (58ºF).
Earth would average 0ºF without them.
• Water vapor (H2O) does 2/3 of this warming.
As Earth warms up, evaporation increases H2O in the air.
This amplifies warming from other GHGs a lot.
• Carbon dioxide (CO2) does 52% of the rest.
Almost all US CO2 comes from burning coal, oil & natural gas.
Per unit of energy, coal emits 4 units of CO2, oil 3, natural gas 2.
• Methane (CH4, natural gas) does 30% (10% indirectly via O3).
CH4 comes from leaky gas wells & pipes, wetlands, cows, coal mines, rice, landfills.
• CFCs, nitrous oxide, and other gases do the rest.
+ 2013 CH4 level ~ 1840 ppb
+ 2013 CO2 level ~ 397 ppm
Vostok Ice Core Data
•
For 100s of thousands of
years, temperatures and
levels of GHGs CO2 and
CH4 in the air have tracked
each other closely.
The difference between
190 and 280 ppm of CO2
was 10ºC (18ºF) at Vostok
and ice almost a mile thick
covering Chicago.
Warming led CO2 & CH4
increases by centuries,
moving carbon from soil,
permafrost and the oceans
into the atmosphere.
∆
2013
+
Vostok data trends say
that 400 ppm CO2 yields
7ºC warmer there than now.
Are lag effects on the way?
Thousand Years before Present
ppm = parts per million
ppb = parts per billion
Vimeux, Cuffey & Jouzel,
Earth and Planetary Science
Letters 203:
829-843
(2002)
Vostok
Ice Core
Data
.
•
Lessons for Our Future from Ages Ago
Temperature – GHG Relationship
Vostok + Pliocene, Miocene
Of the 3 Vostok lines / equations, the
green one, and 2:1 for polar to world ƼC,
yields the best fit for 4.1 and 14.3 Mya.
9
14.1 14.5
Mya
6
3
0
-3
6.0
4.5
R2 for Vostok
.846
.855
.733
3.0
400 ppm in 2015
Vostok ∆°C from 1951-80
12
7.5
(10 K Year Resolution)
1.5
0
-1.5
Estimating ƼC
-107 + 19.1 * LN (CO2)
-6
-34.4 + .707 * (CO2).6 + .308 * (CH4).6
-110.7 + 11.23 * LN (CO2) + 7.504 * LN (CH4)
-9
180
384
220
461
260
300
ppm CO2
554
665
340
798
380
957
Est. Global ƼC from 1951-80
15
420
1840
1149
-3.0
-4.5
460
1379
The ratio of ƼC at
Vostok to the global
average is uncertain.
I use 2.0: the ratio of
North polar change to
global, 1880-2014,
according to NASA.
Ice cores measure
CH4 levels & are more
precise. Pliocene &
Miocene sediments
don’t measure CH4.
To use equations with
CH4 outside ice age
eras, one must estimate
CH4, based on ice age
CO2 – CH4 relations.
With current CO2
& CH4 levels, the
equations suggest 6.5ºC
global warming (or 9.7
ºC). Neglecting CH4
(poor fit), just 3.7ºC.
Warming how fast?
20-40% in decades,
the rest over centuries.
CH4 today ~1840 ppb
Vostok est. ppb CH4
400
highest level since 14-15 million years ago (430-465 ppm)
The deep ocean then was 10ºF or more warmer.
Seas then were 80-130 feet higher.
Annual
Averages
parts per million (ppm)
380
CO2 levels were almost as high (357-405 ppm) 4.0 to 4.2 million years ago.
Sea surfaces then were ~ 7ºF warmer.
Seas then were 65-120 feet higher.
360
340
•
CO2 Levels in Earth's Atmosphere
This means ice then was gone from almost all of Greenland,
most of West Antarctica, and some of East Antarctica.
Sediments show East Antarctic ice then retreated 100s of km inland.
320
300
300 ppm
(maximum between
ice ages)
280
1750
1790
5ºF warmer (7º - 2º already) is worse.
Vostok ice cores suggest 7ºF warmer for 400 ppm CO2.
1830
1870
1910
1950
1990
CO2 levels now will warm Earth’s surface 5+ºF, not just the 2ºF seen to date.
3ºF warmer still (5º - 2º) worldwide makes dry Kansas summers almost as hot as Las Vegas.
We face big lag effects. Current CO2 levels are already too high for us.
So far, half the CO2 we’ve emitted has stayed in the air.
The rest has gone into carbon sinks.- into oceans, soils, trees, rocks.
Up
42%
(35%
Since
1880)
Lessons for Our Future from Ages Ago
Temperature – GHG Relationship
Vostok + Pliocene, Miocene
15
(10 K year resolution)
Of the 3 Vostok lines / equations, the
green one, and 2:1 for polar to world ƼC,
yields the best fit for 4.1 and 14.3 Mya.
9
14.1 14.5
Mya
6
3.0
3
0
-3
1.5
0
Since 1750,
CO2 up 42%
CH4 140%.
Estimating ƼC
-107 + 19.1 * LN (CO2)
-34.4 + .707 * (CO2).6 + .308 * (CH4).6
-110.7 + 11.23 * LN (CO2) + 7.504 * LN (CH4)
-6
-9
180
384
220
461
260
300
ppm CO2
554
6.0
4.5
R2 for Vostok
.846
.855
.733
400 ppm in 2015
Vostok ∆°C from 1951-80
12
Est. Global ƼC from 1951-80
7.5
665
340
380
420
-1.5
-3.0
-4.5
460
CH4 today ~1800 ppb
798
957
1149
1379
The ratio of ƼC at
Vostok to the global
average is uncertain.
I use 2.0: the ratio of
North polar change to
global, 1880-2014,
according to NASA.
•
Ice cores measure
CH4 levels & are more
precise. Pliocene &
Miocene sediments
don’t yield CH4 levels.
To use equations with
CH4 outside ice age eras,
one can estimate CH4,
based on the ice age
CO2 – CH4 relations.
With current CO2 &
CH4 levels, the equations
yield global warming of
6.4ºC (or 9.5ºC).
But only 4.4ºC or 5.7ºC
if CH4 followed a Vostok
pattern. Neglecting CH4
(worse fit), just 3.7ºC.
Warming how fast?
20-40% in decades,
the rest over centuries.
Vostok est. ppb CH4
0.85
1366.3
0.70
1366.0
0.55
1365.7
0.40
1365.4
0.25
1365.1
Solar Irradiance at Earth Orbit, Annual Average
Global Air Temperature, Land Surface, 3-Year Moving Average
1979
1983
1987
1991
1995
1999
2003
2007
∆°C from 1951-80 Baseline
Total Solar Irradiance
Solar Irradiance - World Radiation Center
- NASA
Temperature
∆°C
Temperature
Solar Output vs Earth's Temperature
Watts / m2
1366.6
0.10
2011
In 2007, solar output was the lowest yet recorded (in 28 years), but
Earth’s air temperatures (land surface) were the highest yet recorded.
Sun vs Temp
Heat Content (1022 Joules)
Of the net energy absorbed by Earth from the Sun, ~84% went to heat the oceans.
7% melted ice, 5% heated soil, rocks & trees, while only 4% heated the air. Levitus, 2005
I 10
22
Joules =
100 years of
US energy use,
at 2000-13 rate
1967-1990 0.4 x 1022 Joules / year
1991-2005 0.7 x 1022 Joules / yr
2006-2013 1.2 x 1022 Joules / yr
acceleration
= 20 x human use
By now, the oceans gain
more heat every 2 years than
ALL the energy we’ve ever used.
IMMENSE heat gain
From 2007 to now, ocean heat gain has switched to mostly (70%) below 700 meters deep.
Since 2007, ~90% goes to heat oceans, less to air and others. We notice air heating slower.
•
Sulfates & Cooling
• Dark sulfates in the air block sunlight. That cools Earth.
• Sulfates make haze & become cloud condensation nuclei.
More sulfates = cloudier = cooler.
• Most sulfates come from burning coal, some from volcanoes.
SO2 goes up the smokestacks. It changes to SO4 (sulfate) up in the air.
• GHGs stay in the air many years, sulfates usually for days.
• GHG levels keep rising. Sulfate levels don’t.
• Sulfates now offset 30-40% of GHG warming: 0.5 - 0.7°C.
• As we stop sending up SO2, warming will catch up.
ƼC
Sulfate Cooling Un-Smooths GHG Warming
•
sulfates still
3x 1880
levels
Brown .
NASA GISS – Earth’s
cloud .
grows
over ..
China,
India. .
7,000 weather stations
- adjusted for urban
heat island effects
cool
Sulfates
up 52%
(61/40).
Sulfates
up 46%.
cool
Sulfates
fall 13%.
Pinatubo
erupts
cool
Coal-Fired Power Plants
El
Chichón
erupts
cool
Katmai,
Krakatoa
erupts
Santa Maria,
Colima
Soufriere,
Pelee erupt
erupt
cool
cool
Great
Depression
less SO2
up the stacks
Agung
erupts
cool
US SO2
cuts start.
warming
unmasked
cool
Sulfate
Sulfate
Sulfate
Cooling
Cooling
Cooling
offsets
offsets
40 limits 61 GHG 89
77 GHG 116
warming.
warming.
GHG
1880warming.
Sulfate Levels in Greenland Ice
milligrams of Sulfate per Ton of Ice
162
118
2000
(Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change, 2002)
~ means “approximately, roughly, is about equal to”
One MW can power several hundred US homes.
1ºC = 1.8ºF.
Earth Is Heating Up.
•
Earth now absorbs 0.25% more energy than it emits –
a 300 million MW heat gain (±75 million MW)
300 million MW = 70 x global electric supply = 20 x human energy use.
This absorption has been accelerating, from near zero in 1960.
Earth will warm another 0.6ºC , so .far,
just so it emits enough heat to balance absorption.
• Air at the land surface is 1.0ºC warmer than a century ago.
Half that warming happened in the last 33 years.
• Air at the sea surface is 0.9ºC warmer than a century ago.
84-90% of the energy Earth absorbs heats the oceans.
If it all went to melt Greenland ice, the ice would vanish in 70 years.
• The oceans have gained ~ 10 x more heat in 40 years
than ALL the energy humans have EVER used.
.
Tipping Points
•
Report to US & British Legislators - January 2006
in the US, to Senator Olympia Snowe (R-ME)
What would make climate change accelerate,
so natural forces defeat our efforts to slow it?
1 Disappearance of sea ice
means more heat is absorbed by the water below.
2 Carbon sinks fade in oceans & forests.
Some become carbon sources.
3 Methane release from permafrost
revs up warming in a vicious circle.
More Heat - So? Water
Hurricanes convert ocean heat to powerful winds & heavy rains.
Intense hurricanes are becoming more common.
Higher hurricane energy closely tracks sea surface warming.
With more carbon, oceans have grown more acidic.
So, forming shells is more difficult. They dissolve easier.
Warmer water holds less dissolved oxygen.
Fish & mollusks suffer. Jellyfish prosper.
Sea surfaces warmed 0.15ºC over 1997-2004,
so plankton absorbed 7% less CO2.
Warming was far strongest in the North Atlantic.
CO2 uptake there fell by half.
Ocean phytoplankton levels may be down 40% since the 1950s.
Phytoplankton supply half of Earth’s oxygen.
Reservoirs in the Sky
Most mountain glaciers dwindle ever faster:
in the Alps, Andes, Rockies, east & central Himalayas.
30% of Himalayan glacier ice vanished since 1980.
When Himalayan glaciers vanish, so could
the Ganges River (& others) in the dry season.
When Andes glaciers vanish, so does
most of the water supply for Lima and La Paz.
Mountain snows melt earlier.
CA’s San Joaquin River (Central Valley, US “salad bowl”)
could dry up by July in most years.
The Colorado River’s recent 10-year drought was
the worst since white men came.
Arctic Ocean ice is shrinking fast.
Minimum Arctic Sea Ice AREA
5
4
3
2
1
As the ice recedes,
Earth absorbs more heat.
It will warm more,
even without more CO2.
U of Bremen
0
1978
18
Thousand Cu Km
Million Sq Km
6
Minimum Arctic Sea Ice VOLUME
15
12
9
6
3
PIOMAS
Wipneus
The ice got thinner too.
0
1985
1992
1999
2006
2013
1978
1985
1992
1999
2006
2013
Minimum ice area fell 39% in 35 years, while volume fell 64%, 39% in the last 10.
Arctic Ocean ice could vanish by fall in 8 years & be gone all summer in 25.
Greenland’s net ice loss rate rose 7 x over the past 17 years.
Its yearly net melt-water is already 1/2 of US water use.
Antarctica ice loss was 1/3 as much, but doubled over 2007-11. It has 9 x as much..
So, sea level will likely rise 1-7 feet by 2100 & far more afterward.
.
Thawing Arctic permafrost has 5 x MORE carbon than ALL our fossil fuels emitted.
Already, Arctic permafrost emits ~ as much carbon as all US vehicles.
Thawing permafrost can add ~100 ppm of CO2 to the air by 2100, 280 more by 2300.
Seabed methane hydrates and stores under Antarctic ice hold much more carbon.
What Else? Hot & Dry
From 1979 to 2005, the tropics spread. .
Sub-tropic arid belts grew ~140 miles toward the poles,
a century ahead of schedule. .
.
That means our jet stream moves north more often.
In turn, the US gets hot weather more often.
2011-12 was America’s hottest on record.
.
Over September 2011 - August 2012, relative to local norms,
33 states were drier than the wettest state (WA) was wet.
In 2012, 44 of 48 states were drier than normal.
Severe drought covered a record 35-46% of the US , for 39 weeks.
.
Drought reduced the corn crop by 1/4. Record prices followed.
.
The soybean crop was also hit hard.
The Mississippi River neared a record low. Lake Michigan hit one.
By 2003, forest fires burned 6 x as much area / year as before 1986.
Pine bark beetles ravage Rocky Mtn forests. US fires to double by 2050.
.
“Once a century” droughts are now happening once a decade.
US #3 now
When I was young, the leading wheat producers were the
US Great Plains, Russia’s steppes, Canada, Australia, and Argentina’s Pampas.
China now #1 in wheat.
Notable Recent Droughts.
When
Where
How Bad
2003
France, W Europe
record heat , 20-70K die. hotter in 2012
2003-10 Australia
worst in 900 years. Record heat in 2013.
2005
Amazon Basin
once a century. Worse in 2010 , S. Paulo ‘13-14.
Since 1979, Amazon dry season grew longer by 1 week per decade.
2007
Atlanta, US SE
once a century
2007
Europe: Balkans
record heat, Greek fires, hundreds die.
2007-9
California
record low rain in LA ; all CA very bad in ‘13-14.
2008-9
Argentina
worst in half a century
2008-11 north China
~worst in 2 centuries; severe in Yunnan ‘09-13
2009
India #2 in wheat
2009 monsoon season driest since 1972
2010
Russia 15K die.
record heat, forest fires. Wheat prices up 75%.
2011
Texas, Oklahoma
record heat & drought
2012
US: SW, MW, SE
most widespread in 78 years; record heat
Is That All? No Water
Over 1994-2007, deserts grew from 18 to 27% of China’s area.
.
Yearly net US groundwater withdrawals (irrigation+) grew,. from 0.5% of today’s
water use, before 1950,. to 5.4% now. So, the Ogallala Aquifer, etc. dwindle.
1/5 of wheat is irrigated in the US, 3/5 in India, 4/5 in China.
.
Central CA loses enough to irrigation yearly to fill Lake Erie in 100 years. .
Groundwater loss from India’s Ganges Basin would fill Lake Erie in 10. .
With more evaporation & irrigation, many water tables fall 3-20 feet a year.
Worldwide, irrigation wells chase water ever deeper. Water prices rise. .
Many wells in China & India wheat belts must go down 1,000 feet for water.
Since 1985, half the lakes in Qinghai province (China) vanished. .
92% in Hebei (around Beijing), as water tables dropped below lake beds.
Inland seas and lakes dry up & vanish , for example: .
the Aral Sea, Lake Chad (Darfur), Lake Eyre, Sea of Galilee. .
More rivers fail to reach the sea: Yellow, Colorado, Indus, Rio Grande, etc.
In 2005-6, scientists calculated how climate would change
for 9 Northeast and 6 Great Lakes states in 2 scenarios:
#1 - a transition away from fossil fuels, or
#2 - continued heavy reliance on them (business as usual emissions).
By 2085,
averaged across 15 states, the climate change would be like
moving 330 miles to the SSW (coal & oil use dwindle), or
moving 650 miles to the SSW (heavy coal & oil use).
Consider central Kansas, heart of wheat country.
330 miles to the SSW lies the area from Amarillo to Oklahoma City.
650 miles to the SSW lies the area around Alpine & Del Rio, TX.
2 people / square mile. Cactus grows there.
Mesquite & sagebrush too.
No wheat
Turning Wheat into Cactus
Extreme Drought Can Clobber Earth
• In 1989, NASA climate models showed, as CO2 levels rise and
Earth warms up, droughts would spread and intensify.
• “Once-per-9-year” droughts would cover 27% of Earth by 2002.
• With business as usual emissions, by 2059
CO2 levels would double pre-industrial levels.
• As a result, Earth would warm 4.2ºC [7.5ºF] from 1880 levels.
Rain would increase 14%.
• Despite the added rain,
increased evaporation
would bring extreme
“once-a-century” drought
to 45% of Earth, & rising.
WET
DRY
0
1
5
16
36
36
16
5
1
0
% Occurrence in Control Run
Fig. 1d in David Rind, R. Goldberg, James Hansen, Cynthia Rosenzweig, R. Ruedy, “Potential Evapotranspiration and
the Likelihood of Future Droughts,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, No. D7, 6/20/1990, 9983-10004. .
•
•
Droughts Are Spreading Already.
Palmer Drought Severity Index < -3.0
% with Severe or Extreme Drought -
Switch from what could happen to what has happened already.
Very Dry Areas - % of Global Land Area, 60 º S - 75 N
30
precipitation effect
warming effect
precipitation + warming
25
20
15
.
30% = 16 million square miles
Compare 2002
to 1979.
11% of the area during 1951-80:
once per 9 years
Area where rain is scarce
increased by quite a bit:
3-6 million square miles.
10
5
0
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
-5
from Fig. 9 in Aiguo Dai, Kevin E. Trenberth, Taotao Qian [NCAR], "A
Global Dataset of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870-2002:
Relationship with Soil Moisture and Effects of Surface Warming,”
Journal of Hydrometeorology, December 2004, 1117-1130
Compare 30% actual severe drought area in
2002 (11% of the time during 1951-80) to 27%
projected for 2000-2004 by Rind et al.
Droughts spread, as projected or faster.
Evaporation at work
Earth’s area in severe drought has tripled since 1979.
Over 23 years, the area with severe drought grew by the size of North America.
SUMMARY
Severe drought has arrived, as projected or faster.
Severe drought now afflicts an area the size of Asia.
So, farmers mine groundwater ever faster for irrigation.
From 1979 to 2002
(+0.5ºC) .
1) The area where rain is scarce
increased by the size of the United States.
Add in more evaporation.
.
2) The area with severe drought
grew by the size of North America.
3) The area suffering severe drought tripled.
4) The similarly wet area shrank by the size of India.
What Drives Drought?
• The water-holding capacity of air rises
exponentially with temperature.
• Air 4ºC warmer holds 33% more moisture
at the same relative humidity.
(That’s the flip side of “air cools. It holds less H2O, so it clouds up & rains.”)
More moisture in the air does not equal more clouds.
To maintain soil moisture,
~10% more rain is required to offset each 1ºC warming.
Warmth draws more water UP (evaporation), so
less goes DOWN (into soils) or SIDEways (into streams).
More water is stored in the air, less in soils.
Satellites are already showing more water vapor in the air.
Not quite all the water that goes up comes back down.
Droughts - Why Worry?
2059 - 2 x CO2 (Business as Usual Emissions)
.
Rind et al., 1990
• More moisture in the air, but 15-27% less in the soil.
• Average US stream flows decline 30%, despite 14% more rain.
• Tree biomass in the eastern US falls by up to 40%.
• More dry climate vegetation: savannas, prairies, deserts
The vegetation changes mean
• Biological Net Primary Productivity falls 30-70%.
SWITCH from PROJECTIONS to ACTUALS. .
2005
• Satellites show browning of the Earth began in 1994. Angert
.
Zhao 2010
Droughts - Why Worry?
.
Crop Yields Fall.
Rind et al., 1990
United States: 2059 Projections - doubled CO2 - Business as Usual
– Great Lakes, Southeast, southern Great Plains
• Corn, Wheat, Soybeans - 3 of the big 4 crops (rice is the 4th)
2 Climate Models (Scenarios)
.
• NASA GISS Results
(based on 4.2ºC warmer, 14% more rain)
Goddard Institute for Space Studies
–Yields fall 30%, averaged across regions & crops.
• NOAA GFDL Results
(based on ~ 4.5ºC warmer, 5% less rain)
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab
–Yields fall 50%, averaged across regions & crops.
CO2 fertilization not included .
So things won’t be this bad, especially this soon. Temperature effects of doubled CO2
will keep growing, eventually to 4.2 or 4.5ºC, but over many decades.
CO2 fertilization (2 x CO2) boosts yields 4-34% in experiments, where water and other
nutrients are well supplied, and weeds and pests are controlled. That won’t happen as well
in many fields. Groundwater and snowmelt for irrigation grow scarcer in many areas.
Other factors (esp. nitrogen) soon kick in to limit growth, so CO2 fertilization will falter some.
Plants evaporate (transpire) water in order to
[like blood]
(1) get it up to leaves, where H2O & CO2 form carbohydrates,
(2) pull other soil nutrients up from the roots to the leaves, and
[like sweat]
(3) cool leaves, so photosynthesis continues & proteins aren’t damaged.
When water is scarce,
fewer nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.) get up to leaves.
So, with more CO2,
leaves make more carbohydrates, but fewer proteins.
Photosynthesis, Warming & CO2
For wheat, corn & rice, photosynthesis in leaves
slows above 35ºC (95ºF) and stops above 40ºC (104ºF).
Warming (above 35º or 40ºC) hurts
warm, tropical areas harder & sooner.
Over 1992-2003, warming above the norm cut
rice yields by 10+% / ºC.
Over 1982-98, warming in 618+ US counties cut
corn & soybean yields ~17% / ºC.
With more CO2, 2ºC warming cut
yields 8-38% for irrigated wheat in India.
Warmer nights since 1979 cut
rice yield growth 10%± in 6 Asian nations.
Warming since 1980 cut
wheat yield growth 5.5%, corn 3.8%.
Heat Spikes Devastate Crop Yields
Schlenker & Roberts 2009 .
Based on 55 years of crop data from most US counties, and
holding current growing regions fixed,
average yields for corn and soybeans could
plunge 37-46% by 2100 with the slowest warming
and plummet 75-82% with quicker warming.
Why?
Corn and soybean yields rise with warming up to 29-30ºC,
but fall more steeply with higher temperatures.
Heat spikes on individual days have BIG impacts.
More rain can lessen losses. Plants transpire more water to cool off.
Growing other crops, or growing crops farther north, can help too.
UN Food & Agriculture Organization
Worldwatch Institute 2006
2400
World Grain Production
400
350
2000
kg / capita
Millon Tons
300
1600
250
1200
200
Million Tons
per capita
800
150
100
400
50
0
1960
0
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
80% of human food comes from grains.
World grain production rose little from 1992 to 2006.
Production per capita fell from 343 kilograms in 1985 to 306 in 2006.
•
•
Million Metric Tonnes harvest
by nation in 2011 (right column)
are used to calculate weights.
Weighted average world grain
yields per acre plateaued over
2008-12.
But they rose 7% in 2013, as
the US rebounded to a record
harvest.
The plateau is consistent with
spikes in food prices, and with
forecasts of falling crop yields.
• Any future food production increases will occur away from the tropics.
In the tropics, food production will fall.
• Soil erosion continues. Water to irrigate crops will grow scarcer, as glaciers
and snowpacks vanish, water tables fall, and rainfall becomes more variable.
• Satellites show that, since 1994, hot dry summers outweigh warm, wet springs.
A world that was turning greener is now turning browner.
• Grain stocks (below) are at low levels.
Days of Consumption
World Grain Stocks
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
FAO: Crop Prospects and Food Situation
1960
1966
1972
1978
1984
1990
1996
2002
2008
2014
World Grain Stocks
With food stocks at low levels, food prices rose steeply in 2007-8 and 2010.
World Food Price Index
240
2002-04 = 100
220
200
180
160
140
120
UN, Food & Agriculture Organization: World Food Situation / FAO News
100
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Poor people could not afford to buy enough food in 2007-8. Ditto. 2010-11.
Malnutrition & starvation rose. Food riots toppled governments in 2011.
Estimated Impact of +3ºC on Crop Yields by 2050
40-50% decrease
for Iowa & Illinois
for wheat, rice,
maize, soybean
& 7 other crops
One of many studies,
more pessimistic than average.
from Chapter 3 in World Development Report
2010: Development and Climate Change. by
World Bank,
average of 3 emission
scenarios, across 5
global climate models,
no CO2 fertilization
citing
Müller, C., A. Bondeau, A. Popp, K. Waha, and M. Fader.
2009. “Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Yields.”
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
•
•
Deserts Are Already Spreading.
50 Year Trend in Palmer Drought Severity Index, 1950-2002
75
60
45
30
15
0
-15
-30
-45
-60
-180
Fig. 7 in Dai,
Trenberth & Qian,
Journal of
Hydrometeorology,
Dec. 2004
-120
-6.0
-60
-4.0
0
-2.0
More negative is drier.
60
0.0
+2.0
120
+4.0
180
+6.0
More positive is wetter.
The Sahara Desert is spreading south, into Darfur & the Sahel. See Spain, Italy, Greece.
.
The Gobi Desert is spreading into northeast China. More sandstorms visit Beijing.
Retreating glaciers moisten the soil in Tibet. The USA lucked out till 2007.
.
1.0ºC warming is here. 2ºC has become unavoidable.
Holding warming to 2ºC, not 4º, prevents these losses:
3/4 of Gross World Product
$42 Trillion ~ 3/4 of GWP
1/5 of the World’s Food .
2/3 of the Amazon Rainforest
1/8 of the world’s oxygen supply
Gulf Stream +
West Antarctic Icecap - Norfolk area, much. of
Florida & Louisiana, central CA, Long Island, Cape Cod
1/2 of all Species .
2ºC warming is manageable.
4ºC threatens civilization itself.
Details to follow: first 2ºC, next 3º, then 4º, finally 5ºC.
2° vs 4° Warming
2ºC Warming - 450 ppm CO2e*.
(Waxman-Markey bill or Kerry-Boxer bill in Congress)
Stern Review, British government, Oct. 2006
• includes CH4, SO4,
soot, O3, N2O, CFCs
.
.
.
(a report by dozens of scientists, headed by the World Bank’s chief economist)
selected effects - unavoidable damages
.
.
• Hurricane costs double. Many more major floods
• Major heat waves are common. Forest fires worsen.
• Droughts intensify. Deserts spread.
• Civil wars & border wars over water increase: more Darfur’s.
• Crop yields rise nowhere, fall in the tropics.
• Greenland icecap collapse becomes irreversible.
• The Ocean begins its invasion of Bangladesh.
3ºC Warming - 550 ppm CO2e
Stern Review +
world is on this pace for 2100
(McCain-Lieberman bill, watered down)
additional damages – may be delayed, possibly avoided
• Droughts & hurricanes get much worse.
• Hydropower and irrigation decline. Water is scarce.
• Crop yields fall substantially in many areas.
• More water wars & failed states. Terrorists multiply.
• 2/3 of Amazon rainforest may turn to savanna, desert scrub.
• Tropical diseases (malaria, etc.) spread farther & faster.
• 15-50% of species face extinction.
.
4ºC Warming - 650 ppm CO2e .
.
(double pre-industrial levels)
(Bush proposal)
further damages - avoidable
•
Stern Review
Water shortages afflict almost all people.
• Crop yields fall in ALL regions, by 1/3 in many.
• Entire regions cease agriculture altogether.
• Water wars, refugee crises, & terrorism become intense.
• Methane release from permafrost accelerates more.
• The Gulf Stream may stop, monsoons often fail.
• West Antarctic ice sheet collapse speeds up.
5ºC Warming - 750 ppm CO2e
(Business as Usual Emissions)
.
Deserts GROW by 2 x the size of the US.
World food falls by 1/3 to 1/2.
Human population falls a lot,.
to match the reduced food supply.
Other species fare worse.
Some scientists are saying publicly that if humanity goes on with
business as usual, climate change could lead to the collapse of
civilization, even in the lifetime of today's children.
UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon said “I think that is a correct
assessment.” He added carefully “If we take action today, it may not be
too late.”
September 24, 2007
Continued emission of greenhouse gases will cause further warming
and long-lasting changes in all components of the climate system,
increasing the likelihood of severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts
for people and ecosystems.
IPCC Synthesis Report: November 1, 2014
UN Chief on Climate Change
DARA, Watkiss / Hope, Stern Review
Costs
inflation-adjusted $, Business as Usual
―––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––-–––––----–––––––––––––––––
Costs of Inaction: now $695 Billion/Year
(more than 1% of GWP),
including $120 billion ($400 / American) in the US for 2012 (almost 1% of US GNP).
.
Already 0.5 million / year die worldwide, +4.5 million from coal sulfates.
.
Costs GROW over time.
value : 2005-2200)
$100 Trillion .(present
(2%/year discount rate)
This exceeds GWP.
.
annualized: $2 Trillion / year
Unchecked, by 2100 warming will cost, e.g., India 8.7% of GNP.
Asia Development Bank 2014
a HUGE hidden TAX: $50,000 / American
$85 / Ton of CO2
―––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––------––––––––––––––––––––––
Costs of Action: $9-75 / year / American – CBO, EPA
Spend 1% of GWP ($150 billion by US), each year, ± 2%.
Damages fall to $25 - $30 / Ton of CO2.
World Savings ~ $2.5 Trillion, net from each year’s spending.
Solutions
Put way less carbon in the air.
Take carbon out of the air,
big time.
Take Carbon Out of the Air.
1 Rebuild rangelands. Perennial grass roots add carbon to soil.
Speed up process 10-20 x with short rotation cattle grazing, like buffalo.
Deep roots, dung beetles move carbon into soil. Lots more rain soaks in.
Absorb 1 T carbon (3.7 CO2) / acre / yr. (1 oz C / sq ft) Cut CO2 80 ppm.
2 Farming can put 4.3 GT CO2 / yr in soils (0.7 in US) , for $20-100 / T.
Organic farms add 1 T C / acre / yr to soil.
Rebuild soil organic matter: from 1-3% now, to 6-10% before farming.
3 Rocks have weathered for eons, taking 1 GT CO2 / yr from the air.
Move CO2 into crushed rock (basalt, etc.) Speed up natural process 5 x.
Spread around millions of 2-story towers with crushed rock.
4 Bury biochar shallow in soil: more soil carbon - stays eons, holds water.
5 Add iron filings to select ocean areas. Algae bloom, suck CO2 from the air.
Algae must suck 8 x as much carbon from the air as our food supply does,
just to break even. Oceans may be too small, even if fertilization works well.
Dead algae may not sink. Tiny critters eat them; soon carbon returns to air.
Additional fertilizers (K, P, N, etc.) may be needed. Other problems will arise.
Take More Carbon Out of the Air.
6 Plant more trees. It’s a good idea, but deforestation continues
- for lumber, paper, palm oil, soybeans, ranches, fuelwood. .
Trees need water, but soils will have less. Forest fires run wild.
7 Maintain forest soils: humus, roots, fungi, bacteria, leaf litter.
Below-ground carbon ~ above-ground (20-45ºN). Drought & fires hurt.
(Permafrost holds 3-7 x as much carbon / acre as tropical rainforest.) .
8 Add silicates during hydrolysis at sea surface. Scrub CO2 from the air.
Geo-Engineering Smoke & Mirrors don’t slow acid in ocean.
A Add Sulfates to the Stratosphere – to block sunlight. Only $10 billion / year!
We’d need a hundred flights every day to the stratosphere by big cargo planes.
They’d be only 1% of what we now put in the troposphere.
But it would shift rain from one region to another, e.g., leaving east Africa dry.
B Mirrors in Space – to block sunlight
We’d need half a million square miles of mirrors now, twice the size of Texas.
Add that much in 30 years, and again in 50. They drift outward - solar sails!
Even if the mirrors are as thin as Saran Wrap,
we’d need dozens of space shuttle-sized cargo launches every day this century.
C Create more clouds, or whiten them more.
CO2 Emission Paths to Stabilization .
90
Global Emissions - .
Billion Tons CO2e/yr
80
•
Business as Usual
Stern Review
2006
550 ppm CO2e
450 ppm CO2e
70
60
CO2e (CO2 equivalent) includes
warming from CO2 & other GHGs,
less the cooling effect of sulfates.
50
40
-32%
Total
Warming
30
20
+3ºC
-67%
-75%
10
+2ºC
0
2000
2010
2020
2030
2040
2050
2060
2070
2080
2090
2100
The paths assume NO emissions from permafrost or seabed methane hydrates,
nor lagged warming from vanishing sea ice & sulfates, nor warming so energy out = in.
We already exceed 550 ppm CO2e for +3ºC.
(397 CO2 + 362 other GHGs - 180 sulfate & soot+ = 579)
Holding eventual warming to 2ºC may no longer be possible,
unless we take many GT of CO2 out of the air. CO2 Emission Paths to Stabilization
.
.
* Misc. = Korea, Indonesia,
Thailand, Taiwan, Malaysia,
Vietnam, Bangladesh, etc.
Mid-East,
C Asia 9.1%
Misc.
Asia
7.7%
World CO2 Emissions
from Fossil Fuels
India
5.6%
32.7 Billion Tons in 2012
Russia
5.4%
Europe
13.3%
US
16.1%
•
Latin
America
5.7%
Other
10.7%
China
26.4% .
Japan
3.8%
Africa
3.7%
Poor
.
nations .
believe .
rich
.
countries .
created
.
the
.
problem, .
so
.
let
.
THEM .
fix
.
it! .. . .
Canada
1.7%
Oceania 1.4%
In late 2009, China pledged to cut its CO2 intensity 40-45% by 2020, India 20-25%. In 2012, for the
1st time, China’s electricity from wind grew more (26 TWh) than from coal (12 TWh). In. 2013-14, China
began CO2 cap & trade around Shenzen, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Wuhan, Tianjin & Chongqing.
Their CO2 prices ~ California, RGGI, EU’s. China CO2 output may peak by 2016 (Bernstein) or 2020 (Citi).
In 2014, China coal use fell, for the 1st time in 100 years: 2.3% from 2013 – ahead of schedule.
CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuels
9
8
3.0
Ma jor Emitters
2.7
CO2 Emissions by Nation, Year
(Billion Metric Tons)
Other Asia
2.4
In 1992, Ukraine etc. to Europe,
Kazakhstan, etc. to Central Asia.
2.1
1.8
7
1.5
1.2
Japan
.9
6
.6
.3
5
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
2.0
Europe
1.8
4
Other
1.6
1.4
3
1.2
1.0
.8
2
.6
Russia
.4
1
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
.2
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
America’s Low-Carbon Revolution Has Begun
4.2
US Electricity Production .
Trillion kWh
3.9
50%
3.3
45%
3.0
40%
2.7
35%
2.4
US DOE / EIA
2.1
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
30%
1980
US Oil Use
7.0
Billion Metric Tons
Billion Barrels
5.6
4.9
4.2
3.5
2.8
2.1
US DOE / EIA
1985
1990
1995
2000
US DOE / EIA
1985
2005
2010
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
US CO2 Emissions
6.3
6.3
1.4
1980
Coal's % of US Electricity .
55%
3.6
1980
60%
from Fossil Fuels
6.0
5.7
5.4
5.1
4.8
4.5
US DOE / EIA
4.2
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
Companies are set to cash in on green technologies.
For example,
•
•
•
•
•
•
GE Wind
Evergreen Solar (PV cells)
Entergy (nuclear plants)
Bechtel (IGCC coal plants)
Wheelabrator (landfill gas)
Halma (detect water leaks)
.
Philips Electronics (CFL lighting)
Archer Daniels Midland (ethanol & biodiesel)
Johnson Controls (energy management systems)
Magna International (lightweight auto parts)
Southwestern Energy (natural gas)
Veolia Environnement (desalinization plants).
PV = photovoltaic. IGCC = integrated gasified combined cycle, helps sequester CO2. CFL = compact fluorescent light.
•
Meanwhile, the insurance industry has begun to act.
Re-insurers – Lloyd’s of London, Swiss Re, and Munich Re –
look to cut their losses by urging governments to slow climate change.
•
Direct insurers – like Allstate, State Farm, MetLife, Hartford –
are cutting back coverage in vulnerable areas, such as Florida.
•
Nebraska insurance commissioners require planning for drought risk.
•
Large investors (> $20 Trillion in managed assets) have pushed 100+ companies
to disclose their climate-related risks to shareholders. ExxonMobil is #1 target.
Markets now value high-carbon emitting companies lower.
Carbon disclosure raises stock prices for most companies.
But US coal company share prices fell 2/3 from 2011 to 2013.
•
Other
Transport
13%
trucks,
airlines,
buses,
trains,
pipelines,
ships
Home Heat
9%
Cars,
SUVs,
Pickups
19%
US CO2 Emissions
by Use
Gas & Oil for
Electricity
8%
Commercial
Buildings
6%
Industry .
18% .
Coal for
Electric
.26%
2012: USDOE - EIA
(US Department of Energy Energy Information Administration)
Concentrate on the BIG stuff: coal for electricity
(with a carbon cap) & personal transportation.
US CO2 Emissions, by Use
Electricity Sources .
Wind Wood
1.02%
4.28%
Natural
Gas
27.10%
Hydro
6.44%
US, 2014 - 9 mo
Waste
0.47%
Nuclear
19.12%
Oil
0.80% Central Solar
0.46%
Other
1.59%
Geo-thermal
0.39%
Coal
39.51%
Other Gases
39.06%
0.27%
10%
9%
8%
6%
5%
4%
2%
1.2%
Coal
45%
1993
1997
2001
2005
2009
2013
US Electricity, Minor Sources
Wood
1.0%
0.8%
40%
35%
0.6%
30%
Waste
Geothermal
25%
0.4%
Nuclear
20%
Other Gases
0.2%
15%
Central
Solar
10%
1989
Minor
1%
1989
Wind
Oil
3%
US Electricity, Major Sources
50%
Hydro
7%
0%
55%
••
US Electricity, Other Sources
1993
1997
2001
2005
2009
2013
0.0%
1989
1993
1997
2001
Natural Gas and Wind replace Coal and Oil.
2005
2009
2013
The US Is Cutting CO2 Emissions.
Pres. Obama pledged 17% by 2020 and 26-28% by 2025.
Natural gas prices fell steeply from August 2011 to May 2012.
Cheaper gas replaced coal - a lot - to make electricity.
EPA’s interstate transport rule* for SOx and NOx will make
coal plants operate scrubbers more and use low-sulfur coal.
This makes coal power costlier, so less coal will be used. * on appeal at
Supreme Court
EPA has created rules limiting CO2 / kWh
from new and existing power plants.
Financial markets expect CO2 to be priced.
Most proposed coal plants have been cancelled.
Since 2009, 13% of coal capacity has been scheduled to retire.
New cars & trucks must average 35.5 mpg by 2016
** DOE’s mpg, not EPA’s.
and 54.5 mpg by 2025.**
So, actual mpg will be less.
Hundreds of big companies save money by saving energy.
Incandescent light bulbs began phasing out in 2012.
New standards require ever more efficient appliances.
Solutions - Electricity
• Price it right retail, for everyone: low at night, high by day, highest on hot afternoons.
•
Coal: Use less. Scrub out the CO2 with oxyfuel or pre-/post-combustion process.
Natural Gas & Oil follow daily loads up & down, but oil is costly. To follow loads,
store energy in car & flow batteries, water uphill, compressed air, flywheels, molten salt, H2.
Keep methane (& chemicals to groundwater) leaks from fracking to very low levels.
•
Wind - Resource is many x total use: US Plains, coasts - NC to ME, Great Lakes.
Growing 16-35%/year, it’s often cheaper (3-8 ¢/kWh) than coal. 5.6% of US GW
Wind turbines off the East Coast could replace all or most US coal plants.
Solar - Resource dwarfs total use. Output peaks near when cooling needs peak.
Growing 30+%/yr.
PV costs 4-20 ¢/kWh, thermal (with flat mirrors) 10¢.
•
Nuclear - new plants in China, India, Korea, US Southeast.
•
Water, Wood, Waste - Rivers will dwindle. More forest fires limit growth.
•
Geothermal - big potential in US West, Ring of Fire, Italy.
•
•
Ocean - tides, waves, currents, thermal difference (surface vs deep)
Renewable energy can easily provide 80-90% of US electricity by 2050.
NREL, 2012
Solutions - Efficient Buildings +
• At Home
-
Use ground source heat pumps.
Better lights - compact fluorescents (CFLs) & LEDs.
Turn off un-used lights.
Energy Star appliances - air conditioners, refrigerators, front load clothes washers
Insulation - high R-value in walls & ceiling, honeycomb window shades, caulking
Low flow showerheads, microwave ovens, trees, awnings, clotheslines, solar roofs
• Commercial -
Use micro cogeneration, ground source heat pumps.
Don’t over-light. Use day-lighting, occupancy sensors, reflectors.
Use LCD Energy Star computers. Ventilate more with Variable Speed Drives.
Use free cooling (open intakes to night air), green roofs, solar roofs.
Make ice at night. Melt it during the day - for cold water to cool buildings.
• Industrial
- Energy $ impact the bottom line. Check % IRRs.
Efficiency is generally good already. Facility energy managers do their jobs.
Case-specific process changes as energy prices rise. Use more cogeneration.
Solutions - Personal Vehicles
US cars get 23 mpg. Pickups, vans & SUVs get 17.
7
Average 20.
.
Toyota started outselling Ford in the US & GM around the world.
In 2014, new US cars & pickups averaged 26 mpg, vs 20 in 2007. .
Hybrid sales are soaring, up to 94 mpg.
. EVs go up to 245 mi / charge.
In 2008, new cars averaged 37-44 mpg in Europe, 45 in Japan.
To cut US vehicle CO2 by 50% in 20 years is not hard. .
GM already did it in Europe.
.
HOW?
Lighten up, downsize, don’t over-power engines.
.
Use CVTs, start-stop, VVT, hybrid-electric, diesel. Ditch SUVs.
Use pickup trucks & vans only for work that requires them. .
Store wind on the road, with plug-ins & EVs. Charge them up at night.
.
Solutions - Other Transportation
• Fuels - Cut CO2 emissions further with low-carbon fuels?
Save ethanol & biodiesel for boats & long-haul trucks & buses.
Get ethanol from sugar cane (energy out / in ratio = 8:1).
BUT corn ethanol’s ratio may be less than 1:1.
For biofuels, GHGs from land use changes DWARF GHG savings.
- Hydrogen is extremely tricky to use. Limit to ships, airplanes.
• Trains, Planes, & Ships
Use high-speed magnetic levitated railroads (RRs) for passengers.
Shift medium-haul passengers from airplanes to maglev RRs.
Shift long distance freight from trucks to electric RRs.
Big cargo ships use 2 MW wind turbines, hydrogen, nuclear reactors.
Solutions - Personal
Make your home & office efficient. Don’t over-size a house.
Drive an efficient car. Don’t super size a vehicle.
Don’t drive much over 55 mph. Combine errands, idle 1 minute tops.
Walk. (Be healthy!) Carpool. Use bus, RR, subway.
Bicycle.
Buy things that last. Fix them when they break.
Eat less feedlot beef. Less is healthier! 1 calorie = 7-10 of grain.
Garden. Compost. Move carbon from the air into the soil.
Reduce, re-use, recycle. Minimize packaging. Use cloth bags.
Ask Congress to price carbon. Cut CO2 emissions 80+% by 2050.
OR Tax carbon 3¢/lb, rising 5% per year.
Include tax credits to take CO2 OUT of the air.
1 CO2 levels now commit us to 3+ºC warming,
not just the 1ºC we’ve had so far.
2 That much warming is very bad for the food supply, etc.
We sustain crop yields now by mining groundwater.
3 We need a substantial & rising carbon tax, soon.
4 We need to move way beyond carbon neutral.
We need to move > 100 billion tons of carbon
from the air back into soils and elsewhere, ASAP,
to prevent 3ºC warming, or worse.
QUESTIONS?
Contact Dr. Gene Fry
for more details, citations & references.
[email protected]
www.globalwarming-sowhat.com

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