Week 13-PPT

Report
Week 13
 33 questions [fill-in the blanks; from
weekly journal, weekly quotes, and
lecture notes (PPT) ]
 All in English
 (1)集結每周寫的小組討論與反思週記,可增加
自我反省本學期學習的歷程等。
 (2)撰寫一篇短文,探討與倫理學或美學相關的
主題,可從本學期閱讀的文本和討論的題目中
再延伸發揮。(中文約2000字, 1000 words in
English)
 (3)自由創作: 詩,散文,小說,漫畫,劇本….
(中英文皆可,自由發揮!)
 (4)合訂成小冊,編目錄。
 希臘人富於民主思想和創造精神的天性,個性活潑開
放情,崇尚運動,追求自由自在的樂趣。因此藝術表
現上呈現出充滿健康、自然、樂觀、優雅等的特質,
而有別於近東藝術那種超自然的、宗教的神祕感。在
同一個時代,近東藝術中,作者只是奉命行事去完成,
作品中沒有個人的創意也不留名,可是到了希臘時代,
個人地位提昇,藝術品的製作者才逐漸受重視並留有
名字。
 希臘人因其唯美、唯善觀及優美之地埋、氣候環境,
故追求完美,此種完美之要求亦及於人體及生活;再
因其有優美之氣候與環境,對於戶外活動亦極為熱衷,
於是有各種競賽、體能活動及奧林匹克運動會。
 早期希臘雕刻受到埃及和近東各國的影響
 直到「黑暗時代」過後,希臘人的雕刻開始
建立自己的風貌,展開蓬勃的發展,並對往
後歐洲藝術產生極大的影響。
 希臘雕刻的風貌,主要靠文獻上的記載和羅
馬時代的仿製品而得知;由於年代久遠、歷
經戰亂和人為破壞,大部份原作己所剩無幾。
 希臘的雕刻和 建築,是互為一體的,例如神廟建築上
的破風雕刻﹝山形牆雕刻﹞或浮雕飾 帶、墓碑上的浮
雕……等。
 除了和建築相結合之外,獨立性的雕像也很可觀, 其
創作泉源來自「人體美」,是歷史上「裸體雕刻」的
創始。
 http://vr.theatre.ntu.edu.tw/hlee/course/th9_
1000/open-08-broadcast.htm
年代:450 B.C.
 由器皿上的彩繪來看
﹝一﹞幾何形風格(約 11OO ─ 7OO
B.C.)
﹝二﹞東方風格(約 75O ─ 6OO B.C.)
﹝三﹞黑體人像繪畫(約 7OO ─ 5OO
B.C.)
﹝四﹞紅體人像繪畫(約5OO B.C.)
http://vr.theatre.ntu.edu.tw/hlee/course/th9_1000/open-08broadcast.htm
 這是希臘本土構成性裝
飾的表現,在陶甕上畫
滿告種簡單而有規則的
幾何圖飾,這類型的作
品起初都沒有人物的裝
飾圖案,直到西元前第
八世紀才有明確的人物
形象出現。
 早期的陶甕仍採用幾何圖案,由於當時希臘和近
東地區商務接觸而產生的風格,以故事作為描繪
的內容,人物、動物成為裝飾的主題,輪廓明確,
筆觸肯定,造型生動,作品尺寸隨之增大。
 此種畫風存在於古樸時期至公元前六世紀末葉。以雕刻家
埃司克埃斯﹝Exekias﹞之作品,題為「埃加士與艾契列
士下棋」﹝Ajax & Achilles Playing Draughts﹞之陶罐
為例,其特色為表面光滑、人體皆為黑色、尖鼻大眼、布
局均衡、人物之腳部均在同一半畫面上、無景深,並有幾
何形圖案。在公元前六世紀末葉左右,希臘陶工與畫工在
社會中已漸有相當地位、故多在其作品上署名。
 年代:540 B.C.
 說明:黑體人像
繪畫
 公元前五世紀左右,紅體人像繪畫逐漸取代黑體
人像繪畫。人物皆為紅色,所有人物之立足點已
非同在一水平線上,而係分布在並不規則之層次,
與重疊之人物共同產生遠近距離之感覺,同時各
人物皆有不同之動作,頗具動感。對人體之處理
方面,與黑人物畫風相較,較為活潑、寫實,而
非生硬、規律化。
Alice Y. Chang
15
 Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of
gold and silver, with trace amounts of
copper and other metals. It has also been
produced artificially.
 The ancient Greeks called it 'gold' or
'white gold', as opposed to 'refined gold'.
Its color ranges from pale to bright
yellow, depending on the proportions of
gold and silver.
 Silver Tetradrachm, with the Owl
standing on a olive twig, a crescent on the
upper left and "ΑΘΕ" in front and Athena
wearing an ornamented helmet, 454 - 449
BC.
480-406 B.C.
Alice Y. Chang
 「舞台上的哲學家」的美稱
 悲劇內容大多以家庭生活為題材,討論
戰爭、民主、貧富、宗教、婦女地位…
等問題
 討論雅典奴隸民主制衰弱時期的社會思
想
 寫實
 現存十八部作品,是傳世作品最多的古
希臘悲劇家
Alice Y. Chang
 Alcestis
Written 438 B.C.E
Andromache
Written 428-24 B.C.E
The Bacchantes
Written 410 B.C.E
 Hecuba
Written 424 B.C.E
Helen
Written 412 B.C.E
Translated by E. P.
Coleridge
The Heracleidae
Written ca. 429 B.C.E
Translated by E. P.
Coleridge
Alice Y. Chang
 Iphigenia At Aulis
Written 410 B.C.E
 Rhesus
Written 450 B.C.E
Iphigenia in Tauris
Written 414-412 B.C.E
Translated by Robert
Potter
The Suppliants
Written 422 B.C.E
Translated by E. P.
Coleridge
Medea
Written 431 B.C.E
Translated by E. P.
Coleridge
The Trojan Women
Written 415 B.C.E
Alice Y. Chang
 an ancient Greek tragedy written by
Euripides, based upon the myth of Jason
and Medea and first produced in 431 BC.
 The plot centers on the barbarian
protagonist as she finds her position in the
Greek world threatened, and the revenge
she takes against her husband Jason who has
betrayed her for another woman.
Alice Y. Chang
 A great healer, astrologer, and
respected oracle, Chiron was said to
be the last centaur and highly revered
as a teacher and tutor. Among his
pupils were many culture heroes:
Asclepius, Theseus, Achilles, Jason,
Peleus, Telamon, Heracles, Phoenix….
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiron
 This is the title of a long poem, very popular in classical days,
by the third-century poet Apollonius of Rhodes.
 He tells the whole story of the Quest except the part about
Jason and Pelias which I have taken from Pindar.
 It is the subject of one of his most famous odes, written in the
first half of the fifth century.
 Apollonius ends his poem with the return of the heroes to
Greece. I have added the account of what Jason and Medea
did there, taking it from the fifth-century tragic poet
Euripides, who made it the subject of one of his best plays.
 The first hero in Europe who undertook a
great journey was the leader of the Quest of
the Golden Fleece.
 He was supposed to have lived a generation
earlier than the most famous Greek traveler,
the hero of the Odyssey. It was of course a
journey by water.
Ships did not sail by night, and any place where
sailors put in might harbor a monster or a
magician who could work more deadly harm
 No story proved this fact better than the account of
what the heroes suffered who sailed in the ship Argo
to find the Golden Fleece.
 It may be doubted, indeed, if there ever was a voyage on which
sailors had to face so many and such varied dangers.
 However, they were all heroes of renown, some of them the
greatest in Greece, and they were quite equal to their
adventures.
 the Golden Fleece is the fleece of the gold-
haired winged ram.
 It figures in the tale of Jason and his band
of Argonauts, who set out on a quest for the
fleece in order to place Jason rightfully on
the throne of Iolcus in Thessaly.
 ancient region at the eastern end of the
Black Sea south of the Caucasus, in the
western part of modern Georgia
 In Greek mythology Colchis was the home
of Medea and the destination of the
Argonauts, a land of fabulous wealth and
the domain of sorcery.
 the daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis, niece
of Circe, granddaughter of the sun god
Helios, and later wife to the hero Jason, with
whom she had two children: Mermeros and
Pheres.
 In Euripides's play Medea, Jason leaves Medea
when Creon, king of Corinth, offers him his
daughter, Creusa or Glauce. The play tells of
how Medea gets her revenge on her husband
for this betrayal.
 Medea figures in the myth of Jason
and the Argonauts
 Medea is known in most stories as an
enchantress and is often depicted as
being a priestess of the goddess
Hecate or a witch.
 The myth of Jason and Medea is very
old, originally written around the time
Hesiod wrote the Theogony.
 –noun, plural -ras. 1.(often initial capital letter ) a
mythological, fire-breathing monster, commonly represented
with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail.
 2.any similarly grotesque monster having disparate parts, esp.
as depicted in decorative art.3.a horrible or unreal creature of
the imagination; a vain or idle fancy: He is far different from
the chimera your fears have made of him.
 4.Genetics. an organism composed of two or more genetically
distinct tissues, as an organism that is partly male and partly
female, or an artificially produced individual having tissues of
several species.
Week 15
Alic
e Y.
 Most of these plays date from the last half of the
fifth century B.C.; they were written in and for an
Athens that, since the days of Aeschylus, had
undergone an intellectual revolution.
 It was in a time of critical reevaluation of
accepted standards and traditions that
Sophocles produced his masterpiece, Oedipus
the King, and the problems of the time are
reflected in the play.
Alice Y. Chang
 The use of the familiar myth enabled the dramatist
to draw on all its wealth of unformulated meaning,
but it did not prevent him from striking a
contemporary note.
 Oedipus, in Sophocles’ play, is at one and the same
time the mysterious figure of the past who broke the
most fundamental human taboos and a typical fifthcentury Athenian.
 His character contains all the virtues for which the
Athenians were famous and the vices for which they
were notorious.
Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
 Euripides’ Medea, produced in 431 B.C., the
year that brought the beginning of the
Peloponnesian War, appeared earlier than
Sophocles’ Oedipus the King, but it has a
bitterness that is more in keeping with the
spirit of a later age.
Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
 NURSE
 Oh how I wish that ship the Argo
had never sailed off to the land of Colchis,
past the Symplegades, those dark dancing rocks
which smash boats sailing through the Hellespont.
I wish they'd never chopped the pine trees down
in those mountain forests up on Pelion,
to make oars for the hands of those great men
who set off, on Pelias' orders,
to fetch the golden fleece.
Alice Y. Chang

Then my mistress,
Medea, never would've sailed away
to the towers in the land of Iolcus,
her heart passionately in love with Jason.
She'd never have convinced those women,
Pelias' daughters, to kill their father.
She'd not have come to live in Corinth here,
with her husband and her children—well loved
in exile by those whose land she'd moved to.
She gave all sorts of help to Jason.
Alice Y. Chang
This I know is true.

Of all things with life and
understanding, we women are the
most unfortunate.

 I have no city, and I'm being abused




by my own husband. I was carried off,
a trophy from a barbarian country.
I have no mother, brother, or relation,
to shelter with in this extremity.
 When Jason and Medea returned to Iolcus, Pelias still
refused to give up his throne. Medea conspired to have
Pelias' own daughters kill him.
 She told them she could turn an old ram into a young
ram by cutting up the old ram and boiling it
(alternatively, she did this with Aeson, Jason's father).
 During the demonstration, a live, young ram jumped
out of the pot. Excited, the girls cut their father into
pieces and threw him into a pot.
 Having killed Pelias, Jason and Medea fled to Corinth.
Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
 米蒂亞是科奇斯島國的公主,也是女祭師,一生命運
乖舛,她愛上來自外地為了取得金羊毛與她父親作對
的傑遜王子,不過,這段姻緣最後卻以悲劇收場。
 米蒂亞是月亮女神的乾女兒,所以她懂得使用許多的
黑魔法,她會調製靈藥、占卜、下毒。
 不但法術高強也非常聰明與殘忍,他曾為了傑遜,親
手殺了他自己的弟弟。後因為傑遜移情別戀,與鄰國
的公主結婚,被情人拋棄的米蒂亞一怒之下,製作了
一件沾滿毒藥的禮服,送給傑遜的未婚妻,將其殺
害。甚至還親手殺了自己為傑遜生下的兩名稚子,最
後騎著馬離開傷心地。
Alice Y. Chang
 In Corinth, Jason abandoned Medea for the king's
daughter, Glauce.
 Medea took her revenge by sending Glauce a dress and
golden coronet, covered in poison.
 This resulted in the deaths of both the princess and
the king, Creon, when he went to save her.
Alice Y. Chang
 According to the tragic poet Euripides,
Medea continued her revenge, murdering
her two children by Jason. Afterward, she
left Corinth and flew to Athens in a golden
chariot driven by dragons sent by her
grandfather Helios, god of the sun.
Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
 The common background of audience and poet is
disappearing, the old certainties are being
undermined, the city divided.
 Euripides is the first Greek poet to suffer the fate of
so many of the great modern writers: rejected by
most of his contemporaries (he rarely won first
prize and was the favorite target for the scurrilous
humor of the comic poets), he was universally
admired and revered by the Greeks of the centuries
that followed his death.
Alice Y. Chang
 It is significant that what little biographical
information we have for Euripides makes no
mention of military service or political office;
unlike Aeschylus, who fought in the ranks at
Marathon, and Sophocles, who took an active
part in public affairs from youth to advanced old
age, Euripides seems to have lived a private, an
intellectual life.
Alice Y. Chang
 Younger than Sophocles ( though they died in
the same year), he was more receptive to the
critical theories and the rhetorical techniques
offered by the Sophist teachers;
 his plays often subject received ideas to
fundamental questioning, expressed in vivid
dramatic debate.
Alice Y. Chang
 His Medea is typical of his iconoclastic
approach; his choice of subject and
central characters is in itself a
challenge to established canons.
 He still dramatizes myth, but the myth
he chooses is exotic and disturbing,
and the protagonist is not a man but
a woman.
Alice Y. Chang
 Medea is both woman and foreigner—that is, in
terms of the audience’s prejudice and practice
she is a representative of the two free-born
groups in Athenian society that had almost no
rights at all (though the male foreign resident
had more rights than the native woman).
Alice Y. Chang
 The tragic hero is no longer a king, “one
who is highly renowned and prosperous
such as Oedipus,” but a woman who,
because she finds no redress for her wrongs
in society, is driven by her passion to violate
that society’s most sacred laws in a rebellion
against its typical representative, Jason, her
husband.
Alice Y. Chang
 All through Medea the human beings involved
call on the gods; two especially are singled out
for attention: Earth and Sun.
 It is by these two gods that Medea makes Aegeus
swear to give her refuge in Athens, the chorus
invokes them to prevent Medea’s violence
against her sons, and Jason wonders how Medea
can look on Earth and Sun after she has killed
her own children.
Alice Y. Chang
 These emphatic appeals clearly raise the
question of the attitude of the gods, and the
answer to the question is a shock.
 We are not told what Earth does, but Sun sends
the magic chariot on which Medea makes her
escape.
Alice Y. Chang
 Euripides is the first Greek poet to suffer the
fate of so many of the great modern writers:
rejected by most of his contemporaries
(he rarely won first prize and was the
favorite target for the scurrilous humor of
the comic poets), he was universally
admired and revered by the Greeks of the
centuries that followed his death.
Alice Y. Chang
 His Medea is typical of his iconoclastic approach;
his choice of subject and central characters is in itself a
challenge to established canons.
 He still dramatizes myth, but the myth he chooses is
exotic and disturbing, and the protagonist is not a
man but a woman.
 Medea is both woman and foreigner, that is, in
terms of the audience’s prejudice and practice she is a
representative of the two free-born groups in Athenian
society that had almost no rights at all (though the
male foreign resident had more rights than the native
woman).
Alice Y. Chang
 She is not just a woman and a foreigner, she is also a
person of great intellectual power.
 Compared with her the credulous king and her
complacent husband are children, and once her mind
is made up, she moves them like pawns to their
proper places in her barbaric game.
 The myth is used for new purposes, to shock the
members of the audience, attack their deepest
prejudices, and shake them out of their complacent
pride in the superiority of Greek masculinity.
Alice Y. Chang
 The tragic hero is no longer a king, “one who is highly
renowned and prosperous such as Oedipus,” but a
woman who, because she finds no redress for her
wrongs in society, is driven by her passion to violate
that society’s most sacred laws in a rebellion against its
typical representative, Jason, her husband.
Alice Y. Chang
美狄亞,或譯米蒂亞,是古往今來最著名的復仇女性,也是所
有受背叛、嫉妒所苦的女性的守護神。爲了愛上一個外邦人傑
森,她抛卻公主地位、竊走國寶金羊毛、殺死弟弟,甘願隨夫
遠走他鄉、漂泊失所。然而她的勇敢愛情和偉大犧牲最終卻變
成一則笑話:丈夫決定另娶柯林斯公主,換取穩定名位。美狄
亞走投無路之下,展開恐怖報復:先是獻毒衣焚殺丈夫的新
歡,繼而手刃兩個小孩,乘太陽神的華車遠颺,留下一無所
有的負心丈夫。
Alice Y. Chang
 [shouting into the house, as he shakes the doors]
You slaves in there,
remove the bar from this door at once,
withdraw the bolts, so I may see two
things—
my dead sons and their murderer, that
woman
on whom I shall exact revenge.
Alice Y. Chang
 Jason shakes the doors of the house,
which remain closed.
 Medea appears in a winged chariot,
rising above the house. The bodies
of the two children are visible in the
chariot]
Alice Y. Chang
 Why are you rattling the doors like that,
trying to unbar them so you can find
their bodies and me, the one who killed
them?
Stop trying. If you want something from
me,
then say so, if you want to. But you'll
never
have me in your grasp, not in this
chariot,
a gift to me from my grandfather Helios,
Alice Y. Chang


Zeus on Olympus,
dispenses many things.
Gods often contradict
our fondest expectations.
What we anticipate
does not come to pass.
What we don't expect
some god finds a way
to make it happen.
So with this story.
Alice Y. Chang
Alice Y. Chang
 1. 評論與詮釋Medea的結尾, Chorus
的總結。
 2. Creative work: Write a poem or
speech to comfort Medea.

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