AMA STYLE - TCU - Writing Center

Report
AMA STYLE
SOME BASIC ELEMENTS
©2012 TEXAS CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY, W.L. ADAMS CENTER FOR WRITING
Table of Contents
AMA Style Summary……………
AMA Manuscript Form…………
The Title Page…………………..
Abstracts…………………………
Levels of Headings………………
Superscripts in AMA……………
Direct Quotations……..
Block Quotations………………
Citing Page Numbers……………
Use of Numerals…….
Units of Measurement……………..
Proprietary Names…………..
Reference List…..
Abbreviations of Periodicals….
Journals…………………
Government Bulletins..
Books…
Chapters in Books…………………
Electronic Sources…………….
E-Books…………………………………
Online Journals…………………………
Citing Databases…………………..
DOIs………………………………………..
PMID Numbers………………………..
Newspapers…………………………………
Websites……………………………………
Package Inserts…………………………..
AMA Style Summary
3
“AMA style” refers to the American Medical Association
Manual of Style, 10th edition. Some features that distinguish
it from other documentation styles:
 In-text citation of sources with superscript numerals assigned by the order in which you




first refer to them in a document.
(AMA 3.5-3.6)
Consistent use within a document of the assigned superscript for all your citations of a
single source.
(AMA 3.6)
Inclusion of page numbers in superscripts, for any direct quotations you use. (AMA3.6)
A reference page that lists each source once in the order in which you first referred to it in
the body of your paper, preceded by the assigned superscript.
(AMA 3.2)
Consistent use of abbreviations standardized by the National Library of Medicine for
medical journal titles in references.
(AMA 14.10)
AMA Manuscript Form
4
Many AMA manuscripts follow the the “IMRAD” model for section headings
and structure: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Some Journal
of the American Medical Association (JAMA) guidelines:
 Use a conventional 10-, 11-, or 12-point font, Courier or Times New Roman.





Double-space entire text, including references.
Do not indent paragraphs.
Do not justify the right margins; leave them “ragged.”
Use a title page and a running head.
Include an abstract after the title page.
For a complete checklist of manuscript submission tips, see the table on page 37 of
the AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition.
JAMA also recommends the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted
to Biomedical Journals, published on the International Committee of Medical
Editors website.
The Title Page:
5
The AMA Manual encourages the use of a title
page, but suggests that writers refer to the
specific guidelines of various publishing venues
before formatting a document for submission.
Many AMA manuscripts follow APA style for title
pages:
 Running head appears upper left.
 Page number appears upper right.
 Paper title, author and institutional
affiliation (if required) appear centered
mid-page.
The running head should capture the main point
of the paper in shorter form than the title.
Different journals have different length
standards for length of running heads. JAMA’s
is 45 characters.
(AMA 2.1, 2.2.2-2.4.2)
(Running
head)
Running he
ad: VA
(Title: subt
PTSD Diag
nostic Data
2001-201
2
itle)
A Meta-an
Post-trau
matic Stre
alysis of Re
ss
search on
U.S. Vetera Disorder:
ns
2001-201 Administration Diag
(Name(s)
2
nostic Data
of author)
(Institutio
nal affiliatio
Mel
n or require issa Loden, R.N.
ment, da
Harris Co
llege of Nu te)
rs
Texas Chris ing and Social Wor
k
tian
December University
10, 2011
Abstracts
 An abstract is a concise summary or overview of your research article,
presented on a separate page between the title page and the body.
 Do not cite sources in abstracts.
 Include important key words in your abstract; this enables electronic retrieval
in databases.
 Structured abstracts accompany reports of original data and meta-analyses.
They are usually 250-300 words in length and in IMRAD order:




Introduction of Research Objectives
Methodology and Research Design
Results
Discussion of Conclusions.
 Unstructured abstracts are summaries of about 150 words that accompany
other types of AMA-formatted research writing or position papers.
 Some publishing venues add other requirements for abstracts.
(AMA 2.5)
Levels of Headings




AMA style does not specify any particular
rules for levels of headings, but does advise a
consistently maintained pattern for
formatting and typeface within a document.
Many authors of AMA papers use APA format
for levels of headings; otjers adapt it to AMA
use.
Secondary-level headings should be
formatted in a consistent style or typeface,
visually distinguishable from the primary
headings.
Avoid inclusion of abbreviations, figures,
tables, or references in headings.
APA levels of headings
Level 1 :
Centered, Boldface, Uppercase & Lowercase heading
Level 2:
Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase heading
Level 3:
Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading
with a period.
Level 4:
Indented boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph
heading with a period.
Level 5:
Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading with
period.
(APA 3.03)
(AMA 2.8.1)
Superscripts in AMA
 Cite sources in AMA by assigning
consecutive superscript
numerals, based on the order in
which you first cite them in the
paper.
 For all subsequent citations of a
source after its first mention, use
the same superscript you first
assigned to it.
 Position superscript numerals
outside periods and commas and
inside colons and semicolons.
(AMA 3.5 - 3.6)
Sample superscripts:
Direct Quotations
9

When quoting a source directly, use a
signal phrase to provide context for the
quotation.

To cite sources of direct quotations, use
the appropriately sequenced superscript,
plus the page number.

Notice that there is no period or space
between the “p” and the numbers in the
example to the right:
(AMA 3.6, 8.6.1)
When to Include Page Numbers in AMA
10
With direct quotations:
Ressler concluded, “When we controlled for
common stress-related phenomena (depression and
history of substance abuse), the effect of PACAP
level on PTSD remained stable (P<0.05).”22 (p493)
With separate sections of
a source:
Ressler concluded that controlling for the usual
stress-related catalysts for PTSD, depression and
prior substance abuse, the effect of PAD-CAP
level on PTSD did not vary(P<0.05).22(p493)
Block Quotations
 If a direct quotation extends
beyond 4 lines of your text, set it
off in a block in a smaller font
size and omit quotation marks.

Add a space above and below the
block quotation.
 Do not indent, unless to indicate
the beginning of a paragraph in
the original source.
 As with all direct quotations in
AMA, include the page number
in the superscript.
(AMA 8.6.14)
11
Adjuvanted
Flu Vaccine
and Fetal Ou
tc
ome
7
Writing in th
Medical Ass
e July 11, 20
ociation, Pa
12, issue of
sternak et al
the Journa
. asserted,
l of the Amer
ican
This nation
wid
associations e cohort study in Den
mar
between expo
A(H1N1)pd
sure to an A k found no significant
m09 vaccin
S03-adjuva
e in pregna
nted influen
outcomes in
ncy and risk
za
cluding maj
of ad
or birth defe
restriction.
cts, preterm verse fetal
Although th
e
bi
data provid
respect to ou
rth, and grow
e ro
tc
th
exposure, re omes associated with se bust evidence of safety
sults from an
with
cond- or thir
alyses of fir
viewed as pr
dtr
im
ester
st-trimester
eliminary an
ex sure sh
d need conf
ould be
irmation.22 (p.174po
)
Given that pr
ior research
on the topic
has been lim
ited, 13 the gr
original obje
oup’s
ctive in this
registry-bas
ed cohort st
udy was to
investigate
any potentia
l association
between ex
posure to an
adjuvanted
influenza A
(H1N1)pdm
09 vaccine
during preg
increased ri
nancy and
sk of advers
e fetal outcom 22
e.
Use of Numerals
 Always use numerals to express quantities, except in these cases:



beginning of a sentence: Twenty-five patients responded to the medication.
common fractions: Two-thirds of the respondents were male.
ordinals: The second intubation was compromised by a non-sterile environment.
 Express percentages in numerals; avoid beginning sentences with
percentages, but if you do, express in words.
Sixty-five percent of studies used intention-to-treat analysis; only 42% had adequate
sequence generation, 35% concealed allocation, and 61% had adequately described blinding.
 Decimal fractions below 1.0 must be expressed with a leading zero:
The standard dosage for the control group was 0.5 ml every four hours.
 Express consecutively occurring numbers using a combination of words and
numerals:
Fourteen 12-year-olds eligible to participate in the study tested positive for staph infections.
The study surveyed 203 five-year maintenance and warranty contracts on first-responder
defibrillators in five boroughs in New York City.
(AMA 19.1, 19.2.1)
Units of Measurement
13
 Report measurements of height, length, weight, and




volume in conventional metric units (meters, kilograms,
or liters) or their decimal multiples.
Report temperatures in degrees Celsius.
Report blood pressure in millimeters of mercury, unless
required otherwise by a particular journal.
Many journals use the International System of Units (SI)
for reporting.
Consult Section 14.12 of the AMA Manual for
standardized abbreviations.
(AMA 4.1.4, 14.12, 18.1, 19.1.4)
Proprietary Drug and Product Names
 Use the generic, non-proprietary name in titles, headings, and the text,
unless comparing various brands or particular formulations of a drug.
 Avoid using proprietary (brand) names of pharmaceuticals to preclude
any implication of bias or conflict of interest.
Proprietary name
Non-proprietary name
Medtronic Paradigm Revel
523
insulin pump
Prinivil, Tensopril, Zestril
lisinopril
Chem-Ply gloves
neoprene exam gloves
Augmentin
amoxicillin
Vicodin, Norco
acetominophen hydrocodone
tartrate
Visual Presentation of Data
15
Tables present data in its relationships and support
statements made in a paper without being redundant.
Eachtable requires a title; number consecutively. For
guidance, consult AMA Manual, 4.1.
Figures are graphic displays such as charts, graphs,
scatterplots, illustrations, pie charts, maps, or other
visual representations of data. They also require titles
and a separate numbering system from tables in a
document. For guidance, consult AMA Manual, 4.2.
Reference List
Citations must include “minimum
acceptable data” for a reader to access the
source: author or agency, book title &
publisher, or article title and journal title,
with standardized publication information
or standardized electronic identification
systems such as URL, DOI, or
PubMed(PMID) numbers.
 List sources only once, in the order they
first appear in the document. Number
them consecutively.
 For research papers submitted for
university classes, a common practice is to
single-space reference lists, leaving a line
space between each entry. Some
professors require that students follow
submission guidelines for medical
journals such as JAMA. If in doubt, ask
your professors.

(AMA 3.4-3.5)
1. Fahy
BG, S
heehy, A
M, Cours
in
Referen
ces
DB. Per
enough?
ioperativ
Anesthes
e glucose
iology. 2
control:
009;110
what is
2. Akh
:204-6.
tar S, Bar
ash PF, In
zucchi S
E. Scien
of periop
tific prin
erative g
ciples an
lucose re
d clinical
gulation
implicati
and contr
2010;11
ons
0(2):478
ol. Anes
th & Ana
-497.
lg
.
3. Gand
hi FY, M
uran MH
, Flynn D
N, et al.
surgical
Effect of
morbidit
perioper
y and m
ative infu
ortality;
sion on
systemat
randomiz
ic review
ed trials.
and met
Mayo Cli
aan
n
al
Proc. 20
ysis of
4. Bagsh
08;83(4):
aw SM,
418-430
Hoste E
.
AJ, Jack
a
MJ. Inte
control in
nsive vs
critically
conventi
ill patien
onal blo
ts. J Can
od gluco
5. Majid
Anesth.
se
S, Foo S
2010;57
, Luyt B
:172-175
, et. al. A
.
dopting
decision
evidence
making:
-based p
nurses’ p
ractice in
erceptio
clinical
ns, know
Asssoc.
ledge, an
2011;99
(3):229-2
d barrier
s.
3
6
J
.
M
ed
6. Lipsh
Libr
utz AKM
, Gropper
MA. Per
io
perative
2009;11
0(2):408
glycemic
-421.
control.
Anesthie
7. Subra
siol.
maniam
B, Panzi
ca FJ, N
ovack V
infusion
, et al. C
decreases
ontinuou
major ca
s periop
rdiovascu
erative in
surgery.
la
sulin
r
ev
ents in p
Anesthes
at
ients und
iol. 2009
ergoing
;110(5):
8. Chan
v
9
ascular
70-977.
RPC, Fal
as FRBG
, Hajjar
LA, Bel
Intensiv
lo CN, P
e periop
iccioni M
erative g
A, Auler
lucose co
Jr JOC.
ntrol does
submitte
not impro
d to open
-heart su
ve outco
rgery: a
mes of p
atients
randomiz
2009;64
(1):51-6
ed contr
0.
olled tria
l. Clin.
Submitting Manuscripts for Publication
17


To submit manuscripts for publication in a
particular journal, the AMA Manual
recommends preparing a manuscript
according to the guidelines issued by that
journal. Preferences may vary from journal
to journal on such matters as spacing and
title pages, as well as accompanying
institutional documents.
The Journal of the American Medication
Association (JAMA) recommends following
the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts
Submitted to Biomedical Journals, which are
published on the International Committee of
Medical Editors website, which advises
“double-spacing all portions of the
manuscript— including the title page,
abstract, text, acknowledgments, references,
individual tables, and legends” for both paper
and online submissions.
1. Fahy
BG, S
heehy, A
M, Cou
rsin
Referen
ces
DB. Per
enough?
ioperativ
Anesthes
e glucose
iology. 2
control:
009;110
2. Akh
what is
:204-6.
tar S, B
arash PF
, Inzucc
h
i SE. Sci
of perio
entific p
perative
rinciple
glucose
s and cl
regulati
inical im
o
n
2010;11
and con
plication
0(2):478
tr
ol. Anes
s
-497.
th & An
a
lg
.
3. Gan
dhi FY,
Muran M
H, Flyn
n DN, et
surgical
al. Effec
morbidit
t of perio
y and m
perative
ortality;
infusion
systemat
random
on
ized tria
ic
re
v
iew and
ls. Mayo
m
eta-anal
Clin Pro
4. Bag
ysis of
c. 2008;8
shaw SM
3(4):418
, Hoste
-430.
EAJ, Ja
cka MJ.
control
Intensiv
in critic
e
vs conv
ally ill p
entional
atients.
blood g
5. Maj
J Can A
lucose
id S, Fo
nesth. 2
o S, Luy
0
1
0
;57:172
t B, et. al
-1
75.
. Adopti
decision
ng eviden
making
ce-based
: nurses
practice
’ percep
in clinic
tions, kn
Asssoc.
al
owledge,
2011;99
(3):229-2
and barri
ers. J M
3
6.
6. Lipsh
ed
Libr
utz AKM
, Gropp
er MA.
Perioper
2009;11
at
ive glyce
0(2):408
mic con
-421.
trol. An
7. Sub
esthiesi
ramania
ol.
m B, Pan
zica FJ,
N
ovack V
infusion
, et al. C
decreases
ontinuo
major ca
us perio
rdiovascu
perative
surgery.
lar even
insulin
Anesthes
ts in pat
iol. 200
ie
nts under
9
;1
1
0(5):970
8. Chan
going v
as
-9
RPC, Fal
cular
77.
as FRBG
, Hajjar
LA, Bel
Intensiv
lo CN, P
e periop
iccioni M
erative g
lucose co
A, Aule
r Jr JOC
submitte
ntrol do
.
es not im
d to open
prove o
-heart su
utcomes
rg
er
y
:
of patie
a random
2009;64
n
(1):51-6
ts
ized con
0.
trolled tr
ial. Clin
.
Abbreviations of Periodicals
When citing articles from journals in the reference list, use the title abbreviations standardized in
the US National Library of Medicine’s current Fact Sheet or Index Medicus.
For example:
Ebneshahidi A & Mohseni M. Hoarseness after tracheal intubation. Anesth Analg. 2010;111:8924.
No periods are necessary after the abbreviations.
Some examples:
American Association of Nurse Anesthetists = AANA J
American Journal of Nursing = Am J Nurs
BMJ: British Medical Association = BMJ
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism = J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Journal of Nursing Administration = J Nurs Adm
Medical Letters of Drugs and Therapeutics = Med Lett Drugs Ther
Southern Medical Journal = South Med J
(AMA 14.10)
Journal Articles
 List authors by surnames and




initials (without periods) using
commas to separate them.
If there are more than 6 authors,
use only the first 3, along with
the “et al.” notation.
Use lower-case letters for the
article title, excluding the first
word and any proper nouns
included.
Abbreviate the journal title
according to the AMA-endorsed
list (see previous slide).
List year, volume number, issue
number, and inclusive pagination
in the pattern shown to the right.
(AMA 3.4)
19
Reference
1. Evans
s
RW, Blum
enfeld A.
Botulinum
to
xi
n injectio
headache
ns for
. Headach
e. 2003;4
3(6):682
-685.
2. Goldb
erg LD. Th
e cost of m
igraine an
d its treatm
Care. 2005
ent. Am J
;11(2):(su
Manag
ppl) S62S67.
3. Ranie
r S, Thom
as D, Toka
rz D, et al
. Myofibri
mutations
llogenesi
cause paro
s regulato
xysmal dy
r 1 gene
stonic chor
2004;61(
eo
at
he
to
7):1025-10
sis. Arch N
eu
29.
rol.
Books
20
 Cite authors by surname and




initials, without periods. Use
commas to separate author names.
Italicize book titles and use
conventional capitalizations.
Include edition numbers, city of
publication, publisher’s name or
imprint, and copyright date.
If six or fewer authors, list all. If
more than six, list the first three
followed by “et al.”
For edited books, add “ed.” or
“eds.” after the names in the
author position of the citation.
(AMA 3.15.2)
Reference
1. Modlin
J, Jenkins
P. D
s
ecision An
alysis in Pl
anning fo
r a Polio Ou
San Franci
tbreak in
sco, CA: Pe
the
di
atric Acade
2. Pasha
R. Otolary
mic Societ
ngology H
ies; 2004
.
ead and N
eck Surger
3rd ed. San
y: Clinical
Diego, CA
Reference
: Plural Pu
Guide.
bl
ishing; 20
3. Shepar
10
.
d TH, ed.
Catalog of
Teratogeni
c Agents. th
Hopkins Pr
7 ed. Ba
ess; 1992
ltimore, M
.
D: Johns
4. Simon
LS, Lipman
AG, Jacox
AK, et al.
Pain in Ost
Arthritis,
eoarthritis
and Juveni
, Rheumat
le Chronic
oid
Arthritis. nd
2 ed. Glen
Society; 20
view, IL: A
02.
merican Pa
in
United Stat
es.
Chapter in a Book
21
1. Solen
sky
R. Drug
Referen
allergy:
desensiti ces
zation an
d treatm
and aspir
ent of re
in. In: L
actions to
o
ck
ey P, ed.
Immunot
A
llergens
herapy. rd
an
d Allerge
3 ed. N
ew York
n
2. Degn
: Marcell
er LF, M
Dekker;
cWilliam
2004:58
s ME. Ch
5
-6
06.
allenges
research
in condu
. In: Fit
cting cro
zpatrick
ss
-national
JJ, Steven
nursing
son JS, P
its Utiliza
olis NS,
tion: Inte
eds. Nu
rnational
rs
in
g Researc
State of
h and
211-215
the Scien
.
ce. New
York: Sp
ringer; 1
994:
antibioti
cs





Cite the authors of the particular chapter
or essay by surname and initials. Separate
author names with commas.
Follow the unconventional capitalization
rules for titles of articles: use lower-case
letters for all except the first word and
proper nouns.
Cite in full the title of the book in which
the chapter appears. Use conventional
capitalizations.
Provide the city of publication, the
publisher, and the year.
Provide inclusive page numbers of the
chapter.
Government or Agency Bulletins
22
 If no single author is named,
cite the issuing government
agency as the author.
 Italicize titles of reports;
follow article title rules for
sections of reports.
 Provide any relevant
information such as series
numbers, or numbers used to
identify the documents within
agency-generated document
identification systems.
(AMA 3.13.2, 3.15.5)
References
1. Centers for Dis
ease Control and
Preventio
n. Sexually Transm
itted Disease
0. Atlanta, GA: Cen
ters for Disease
Control and Preven
tion,
U.S. Dept of Healt
h and Human Ser
vices; 2001.
2. Sin HB, Bruno
R. Census 2000 Bri
ef C2KBR-29: Lan
guage Use and En
glishSpeaking Ability:
2000. Washington
, DC: US Census Bu
reau; 2003.
3. World Health
Organization. Int
ernational guide
for monitoring alc
ohol
consumption and
related harm. Ge
neva (CH): World
Health Organizat
ion;
2000.
Surveillance, 200
4. World Health
Organization. Pre
liminary dose est
imation from the
nuclear
accident after the
2011 Great East
Japan Earthquak
e and Tsunami
http://www.wh
o.int/ionizing_radi
ation/pub_meet
/fukushima_dose
_assessm
ent/en/index.ht
ml Published 20
12. Accessed Jul
y 9, 2012.
Electronic Sources
23
 Electronic sources should be cited in a way as to be accessible to your reader.
 Electronic source citation format is determined by method of access: e-books,
journals, databases, list-servs, websites, government archives, and others.
 Some electronic citations require URLs and dates accessed, if website layout is
subject to change. Other citations have permanent locators such as DOIs or PMID
numbers, which will not change and therefore require no URL.
 Citation formats may vary slightly according to whether the source first appeared in
print; some sources now appear online before they appear in print. Some online
journals have pagination; others do not.
 Some electronic sources are available in more than one format. For example, a
source may appear in an online journal as well as a database such as PubMed or
Cochrane Library.
 “Versioning” refers to a means of citation that includes updates and edits to an
electronic source. A good rule of thumb for citing electronic sources in AMA style:
always cite the version you consulted.
(AMA 3.15)
E-Book
Cite an electronic book by providing the
conventional elements of a book citation, then
add the URL and date of access:






Author and/or editor
Title & edition number if applicable
City and state of publication
Publisher
Year of copyright
URL & Date of access.
(AMA 3.4, 3.15)
Referen
ces
1. Mora
n DT, Ro
wley JC.
World, 2
Visual
01
http://w 2. Available fro Histology Atlas.
m
w
E-book.
Woodst
Accesse w.visualhistolo
ock, MD
d July 16
gy.com/p
: IHC
, 2012.
roducts/
atlas/in
dex.htm
l.
Online Journals
! " #"$"%&" '
The basic elements of an online journal
citation are:
 Authors(s)
 Article title
 Journal name, abbreviated
 Year
 Volume number (if available)
 Inclusive pages (if available)
 DOI, or PMID number
 URL and date of access if necessary
Several versions of a source may exist online.
Cite the version you consulted.
(AMA 3.15.1)
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Citing Databases
26
References
In citing databases, include the following
elements in this order:
 Author(s), if available
 Title of database
 Publisher’s location, name, most recent
date
 URL
 Date accessed.
(AMA 3.15.8)
1. Online
Mendelian
Inheritance
in Man, OM
IM. Baltim
University
ore, MD: Jo
Press, 2000
hns Hopkin
. http://ww
s
w.ncbi.nlm
.nih.gov/site
Accessed Ju
s/gquery.
ly 16, 2012
.
2. PDQ: NC
I’s Compreh
ensive Canc
er Database
. Bethesda
Institute; 19
, MD: Natio
96. http://w
nal Cancer
ww.cancer
.gov/cance
rtopics/pd
Accessed Ju
q/cancerda
ly 16, 2012
tabase.
.
DOIs
References
1. Wen XJ, Ka
nny



“DOI” stands for “digital object identifier.” A
DOI is a permanent online address that is not
subject to any changes of URL.
A DOI has 2 elements, a prefix and a suffix,
separated by a forward slash:
10.1038/nature02312
DOIs are preferable to URLs; do not cite
URLs with them, and there is no need to
provide date of access.
(AMA3.15)
D, Thompson
WW, Okoro CA
, Town M, Ballu
z LS. Binge
drinking inten
sity and healt
h-related quali
ty of life amon
g
U.S. adult bin
drinkers. Prev
ge
Chronic Dis 20
12;9:110204
. DOI:
http://dx.doi.o
rg/10.5888/pc
d9.110204.
2. Deschoolm
eester V, Baay
M, Van Marck
E, Weyler J, Ve
rmeulen P, La
and Vermorke
rdon F,
n J. Tumor inf
iltrating lymph
ocytes: an int
riguing playe
survival of co
r in the
lorectal cancer
patients. BM
C Immunol. 20
10;11:19. Publi
online 2010 Ap
shed
ril 12. DOI: 10
.1186/1471-21
72-11-19.
3. Spence K,
Barr P. Nasal
versus oral int
ubation for me
chanical vent
newborn infan
ilation of
ts. Cochrane Ne
onatal Group,
The Cochrane
Library. Janua
21, 2009. DOI:
ry
10.1002/146
51858.CD000
948.
PubMed (PMID) Numbers
28
References
1. Jeon, YT, Oh
AY, Park SH, Hw
ang JW, Park HP
. Optimal remife
ntanil dose for
lightwand intub
ation without
muscle relaxan
ts in healthy pa
tients with
thiopental coad
ministration: a
prospective ran
domized study
. Eur J
Anaesthesiol. 20
12 Jul 13. PMID
: 22801581.
PMID numbers denote journal articles that are
indexed in PubMed. Include them in citations.
If you use a PMID number, there is no need to
cite a URL or date of access.
Newspapers
29
References
1. Goldberg J. Us
e

To cite newspaper sources, include author,
article title, newspaper title (in italics), date
of publication, section and page numbers.
of drugs endang
told. Los Angeles
Tim
2. Goodnough
A. Lin
To cite newspaper sources retrieved
electronically, follow the same pattern as for
print and include the URL, plus the date of
your access.
March 28, 2003
: C4
.
2006: C1.http://w
rs are
dicaid plan. New
Yo
traditional medic
ine. Tim
rk
es of India.
phrenia drugs do
ubted. Washing
ton
ww.washington
post.com/wp-
dyn/content/artic
le/2006/11/30
/AR200611300
1532.html. Acces
13, 2012.
(AMA 3.13.1, 3.15.4)
tem to monitor
4. Vedentam S.
Cost benefits of
new schizo
Post. December
1,
rse racing, senato
es are drawn ove
r opting out of Me
Times. July 13,
2012:A1.
3. Majumdar P.
No sys

ers horses and ho
es. July 12, 2012
:A1.
sed July
Websites
References
When citing a website in AMA style, provide the
elements crucial for your reader to locate the
precise source you used:
 Author or authorial agency (if given)
 Title of article or document
 Name of the web site
 URL
 Date of publication
 Date of access or retrieval.
(AMA 3.15.3)
1. Internation
al So
ciety for Infect
ious Diseases.
ProMED-mail We
b site.
http://www.pr
omedmail.org.
Accessed April
29, 2004.
2. National Ele
ctrical Manufac
turers Associat
ion. Recommen
dations for the
care and maint
enance of high
intensity metal
halide and mercu
ry vapor
lighting in schoo
ls. National Ele
ctrical Manufac
turers Associat
ion website.
http://www.ne
ma.org/stds/h
alide-schools.cr
m#download.
Accessed
December 6, 20
05.
Package Insert
31
Reference
1. Lamas
il [packa
1993.
2. Accuc
heck
Provide the product brand name, specifying in
brackets that it is an insert. Also provide the
manufacturer’s location, name, and date of
copyright for the insert in a format similar to
book or report citations, as shown in the two
examples to the right.
(AMA 3.13.6)
ge insert
]. East Han
over, NJ:
Aviva Plu
Diagnosti
cs;
s
2009.
Sandoz P
harmaceu
ticals Co
rp;
s Diabete
s Monitor
ing Kit [p
ac
kage inse
rt]. Roche
Index to Slides
32
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










Abstracts…………….
Books…………….
Block quotations…………..
Chapters in books…………….
Databases……………………….
Direct quotations…………………
Electronic sources………………….
E-books…………………………………
Government bulletins……………………..
DOIs………………………………….
Levels of headings…………………………..
Manuscript form……………………….
Newspapers………………













Numerals…………………………
Online journals………………….
Package inserts………………………………
Page numbers in superscripts………
Proprietary names…………………
PubMed (PMID) numbers……………..
Reference list……………………………..
Summary of AMA style……………………
Superscripts………………….
Title page……………………………..
Units of measurement…………………….
Visual data………………………
Websites………………….

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