CH 9 Power in Groups : A Central Dynamic

Report
In Mixed Company
Chapter Nine
Power in Groups:
A Central Dynamic
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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The Nature of Power:
No One is Powerless
• Power is group-centered, the power you
wield is dependent on the relationships
you have with group members.
• No group member is completely
powerless, the interconnectedness of
components in as system means that all
group members have some influence even
if it is to resist or to defy the group.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Forms of Power: Competition and
Cooperation Revisited
• Dominance of power over others flows from a hierarchal structure or
from differences in status among group members.
• Prevention, or power from the efforts of others to influence.
• Empowerment, enhancing the capabilities and influence of
individuals and groups. Empowerment is power to accomplish your
own group or help others achieve theirs through process of group
potency, meaningfulness, autonomy, and impact.
• An effective leader actively seeks to increase the readiness levels of
followers, thereby empowering them to accomplish tasks without the
leader watching their every move.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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General Indicators, Labeling,
Following, and Opposing
• Those who define others exercise control. Ordinarily we
define people by attaching a label to them.
• Whose decisions are followed is a second general
indictor of power in a group. The individual with the
position of authority in a group may not be the person
with the most power.
• Who opposes significant change is a third general
indicator of power. Those who have been accorded
power by the group are usually uncomfortable with
chance that goes much beyond a little fine-tuning.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Verbal Indicators
• In general, group members who use more
powerful language patterns are perceived to be
more credible ,attractive, and persuasive than
those using less powerful language.
• Verbal dominance is also indicated by
competitive interrupting, contradicting, and sheer
quantity of speech.
• Monopolizing conversation in these ways has
obvious power implications.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Nonverbal Indicators: Silent Power
• Space is the prerogative of the powerful (best
offices)
• Posture and gesture communication are also
markedly different for super-ordinates and
subordinates.
• Touch clearly indicates power relationships in
groups. The less powerful often feel required to
yield to the touch of their superiors even when
the touching triggers uncomfortable feelings.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Nonverbal Indicators: Silent Power
• Eye contact is yet another nonverbal
indicator of relative degrees of power.
• Nonverbal symbols include a wide variety
of objects and tangible materials: large
desks, windows, leather chairs, company
cars etc.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Power Resources
•
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A power resource is “anything that enables
individuals to move toward their own goals or
interfere with another's actions. Five resources
to group situations:
Information
Expertise
Punishments/ Eewards
Personal Qualities
Legitimate Authority
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Information: Restricted or Scarce
•
Information assumes value or usefulness when
it is perceived to be unavailable.
• Information becomes unavailable primarily from
restrictions and scarcity.
• The competent communicator can capitalize on
information as a power resource:
1. Provide useful but scarce or restricted
information to the group.
2. Be certain information is accurate, sharing
information could earn you the hostility of the
group.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Expertise: Knowing and Showing
• Experts not only have valuable and useful
information for a group, but they also understand
the information and know how to use it to help
the group.
• The group must be convinced that the person
has the requisites skills, abilities, knowledge,
and background to function as a real expert.
• The person who has been accorded status as
an expert must demonstrate trustworthiness.
• Power is not derived from expertise if the group
suspects that the expert will lie for personal gain.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Expertise: Knowing and Showing
1. Maintain skills, abilities, and knowledge
currency.
2. Demonstrate trustworthiness and
credibility.
3. Be certain of your facts before advising
the group.
4. Don’t assume an air of superiority.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Rewards
• An extrinsic reward motivates us to
behave or perform by offering us an
external inducement such as money,
grades, recognition.
• An intrinsic reward is enjoying what one
does for its own sake.
• An intrinsic reward motivates us to
continue doing what brings us pleasure.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Rewards & Punishments
• Punishments should be the last resort.
• Punishment should be appropriate to the
act.
• Punishment should be swift and certain.
• Be generous with praise that is warranted.
• Determine what rewards group members
value before offering any.
• Administer both punishments and rewards
equitably and fairly.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Legitimate Authority
• Power can be derived from the shared
belief that some individuals have
legitimate right to influence and direct our
behavior by virtue of the roles that they
play.
• We are not inclined to comply with
directives from those individuals acting
authoritatively but who are not deemed
legitimate.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Legitimate Authority
• Become an authority figure (appointed and
emergent leaders)
• Gain Legitimacy (accepting group rules &
standards)
• Encourage participative decision making
• Act ethically
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Compliance Group Power
• Compliance is the process of consenting
to the dictates and desires of others.
Compliance involves both obedience to
authority and conformity to the group
norms.
• Conforming to group norms can
sometimes prove to be more powerful
tendency than obeying authority.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Alliance: Coalition Formation
• Alliances are associations in the form of subgroups
entered into for mutual benefit or a common objective.
• Because coalitions can change the distribution of power
in a group, coalition formation is typically adversarial,
competitive, and contentious.
• Coalitions are formed not simply to advance goals of the
allied members, but also to prevent the attainment of
non-coalition members goals.
• Resistance is a covert form of communicating noncompliances and it is often duplicitous and manipulative.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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Resistance
1. Confront the strategy directly.
2. Thwart the enabling process. We
become enablers when we allow
ourselves to become ensnared in the
resister’s net of duplicity. When we wait
for tardy members, or perform their tasks
for them we enable their resistance.
3. Give clear directions regarding
specific tasks.
Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in
Groups A central Dynamic
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