english-lecture

Report
Lecture 5
English morphology-4
Lecture content
 Adjectives
 Identifying the adjectives
 Adjective classification
 Use adjectives correctly
 Adjective degrees
 Past simple tense
- Declarative or statement
- Interrogative or question
- Negative
Adjectives
An adjective modifies (describes or limits) a noun or
occasionally a pronoun. For example;
a red barn
a swift ride
a happy woman
this side
seven crowns
some cookies [limiting]
Sometimes adjectives need the in front of them.
the rich
the poor
the deaf
the dead
the disabled
the unemployed
There are many adjectives ending in –ing and –ed.
Jane’s job is boring.
Jane is bored (with her job).
Adjective classification
Simple
adjectives
Derivative
adjectives
Compound
adjectives
/Ýíãèéí/
/¿¿ñìýë/
/á¿ðýëäìýë/
Long
Young
Old
Rich
Deep
nice
Comfort + able
Use + less
Beauty + ful
Un + happy
Il +legal
Dis +obedient
Religion + ous =
religious
/al, ial, ant, ent,
able, ible, y, ic, ous,
ive, less, ed, ish,
ing/
Empty-headed
Soft-hearted
Long-legged
Mad-made
Absent-minded
Long-sighted
Snow-white
Adjective classification
Adjectives Mongolian
Examples
Qualitive
adjectives
×àíàðûí òýìäýã íýð
Good, large, short, expensive
Relative
adjectives
Õàðüöàíãóé
òýìäýã íýð
Golden, woolen, wooden,
drunken
Interrogative
adjectives
Àñóóõ òýìäýã íýð
What, which, whose
Quantitative
adjectives
Òîî õýìæýýíèé
òýìäýã íýð
One, eleven, some, many,
much, a few, little
Distributive
adjectives
Ò¿ãýýõ òýìäýã
íýð
All, every, either
Use adjectives correctly
Attributive use
Predicative use
An uncle of mine is a rich
man.
She is a lucky girl.
An uncle of mine became
rich.
She is lucky.
Predicate adjectives; Forms used in front of noun
Alike
like, similar
Alive
live, living
Alone
lone
Afraid
frightened
Asleep
sleeping
A predicate adjective appears after a linking verb such as be. It cannot appear
directly in front of the noun that it describes.
The snake on the rock was alive. The live snake was lying on the rock.
Use adjectives correctly
Verb forms ending in –ed and –ing can be used as adjectives.
For example, the verbal adjectives cleaned and cleaning come
from the verb to clean.
The woman cleans the car.
The cleaning woman worked on the car.
The woman put the cleaned car back in the garage.
-ed and –ing adjectives
Type
Meaning Use
Example
-ing
active
It does the action
of the verb.
The happily playing children were
his grandchildren.
-ed
passive
It receives the
action of the verb.
The girl threw away her played toys
suddenly.
Use adjectives correctly
Sometimes we use two or more adjectives.
 My brother lives in a nice new house.
 In the kitchen there was a beautiful large round wooden
table.
Adjectives like new/large/round/wooden are fact adjectives.
They give us factual information about age, size, colour
etc.
When there are 2 colour adjectives, we use and; a black and white
dress
Adjectives like nice/beautiful are opinion adjectives. They
tell us what somebody thinks of something or somebody.
Opinion adjectives usually go before fact adjectives.
I was met an interesting young man yesterday.
It’s the first day of nice long summer holiday.
Use adjectives correctly
We use adjectives after be/get/become/seem;
 Be careful !
 Your friend seems very nice.
 As the film went on, it became more and more boring.
 I’m tired and I’m getting hungry.
Compare adjectives ending in –ing and –ed.
The –ing adjectives tells you about the job.
The –ed adjectives tells you how somebody feels (about the
job).
My job is boring.
I’m bored with my job.
interesting. I’m not interested in my job any more.
tiring.
I’m always tired when I finish work.
depressing. My job makes me depressed.
Adjective degrees
Adjective Comparative
Superlative
Old
Young
Nice
Older
Younger
Nicer
Oldest
Youngest
Nicest
Thin
Big
Hot
Thinner
Bigger
Hotter
Thinnest
Biggest
Hottest
Expensive
Beautiful
Clever
More expensive
More beautiful
More clever
Most expensive
Most beautiful
Most clever
Crazy
Pretty
Happy
Crazier
Prettier
More happy
Craziest
Prettiest
Most happy
Good
Bad
Little
Better
Worse
Less
Best
Worst
least
Adjective degrees
Comparison;
I’m taller than you.
You’re more patient than me.
The exam was quite difficult – more difficult than we
expected.
They have more money than we have.
You are more handsome than Bat is. You’re taller than him.
He is not as clever as her.
Henry is rich.
He is richer than Arthur.
But he isn’t as rich as John.
Adjective degrees
Superlative;
This hotel is the cheapest in town.
The oldest person in our family is my grandmother.
Dorj is the one of the most hard-working workmen of our
company.
Bolor is the prettiest girl in our class.
What is the most exciting movie you have ever seen?
Ghost is the most exciting movie I have ever seen.
Tuya is the best student in our class at math, but Bold is
the second best student at math.
Past simple tense
Something happened once in the past we use Past
simple tense when we express about it.
Key words:
 yesterday morning, yesterday afternoon, yesterday
evening
 last night, last week, last month, last year
 3 days ago, 3 weeks ago, 3 months ago, 3 years ago
 this morning
Past simple tense
 Statement
Subject
I, You, we, they
Verb
He, she, it
verb+ed
 Question
I
Did
you, we, they
he, she, it
verb?
 Negative
I, You, we, they
He, she, it
didn’t
verb
Past simple tense
Verb present
Past simple
Past participle
Work
worked
worked
Live
lived
lived
Go
went
gone
Write
wrote
written
Study
studied
studied
Cut
cut
cut
Teach
taught
taught
Stop
stopped
stopped
Past simple tense
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
What did you do yesterday afternoon?
Yesterday afternoon I played tennis at
school.
Where did you live 3 years ago?
I lived in UB 3 years ago.
Did you meet Bold last night?
No, I didn’t. I met him last week.
Did you go out yesterday evening?
Yes, I did. I went to the cinema with my
friends.
I didn’t study English when I was at school.
I studied English when I was a student at University.
I cut my finger while I was cooking.
He was walking home when he met Ann.
Thanks for your attention!

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