Presentation - e/merge 2012

Learners’ Acceptance of Mobile Phone for
Distance Learning Tutorials: A Case Study
of University of Ibadan Distance Learning
Francis Egbokhare
Gloria Adedoja
Omobola Adelore
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
An intervention piloted at tutorials
with educational radio and mobile
phones in supporting distance
learners at the University of Ibadan.
Case Study Objectives
• The objectives of the study on the use of radio broadcasting and mobile
phones are to:
• Determine the level of acceptance of students mobile delivery mode;
• Create opportunities for users to contribute to the final product under the
following variables; external factors perceived usefulness, perceived ease
of use, intention to use, attitude to using and action (Davis, 1986);
• Determine which cultural and environmental factors are predominant in
influencing acceptability of the courseware;
• Determine preference for a particular delivery format and reasons for
• Ascertain the type of support students need for effective use of the new
delivery mode; and
• Based on challenges faced in the process of utilisation make appropriate
recommendations for adoption.
Delimitations of the Study
The study concerned with Distance learners’
view and acceptance of a new support mode. It
looks at this in light of the following variables:
– External factors
– Perceived usefulness
– Perceived ease of use
– Behavioural intention to use
– Actual use
The study adopted a mixed method (quantitative and
Creation of awareness using email and bulk sms
Registration of students on the mobile platform
Dividing students into groups for tutor interaction
Exposing learners to an assessment after going through
the first three modules.
– Immediate feedback to students after quiz.
– Tutors interact with students.
– Students are given questionnaires to fill and exposed to
Questionnaires administered was divided into sections that
treated the variables to be measured.
Figure 1: TAM Model Showing the Relationship between Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use and
Actual Use
Explanation of Model
• The study’s framework is based on Davis (1986) Technology
Acceptance Model (TAM) which made use of the Theory of
Reasoned Action (TRA).TRA postulates that an individual’s
attitude towards a behaviour is influenced by his/her belief.
Notably, the model deals with the acceptability of an
information system/tool, how it can be used to predict
acceptability of the system/tool, and modifications to be
made for acceptability.
• The model assumes that acceptability is majorly
determined by two factors:
• Perceived Usefulness (PU); and
• Perceived Ease of Use (PEU)
See page 6 for Proposed Model
Proposed Model for Analysis
Perceived ease of use
Attitude towards use
Behavioural intention of use
Actual use
Perceived usefulness
Technology self-efficacy
Acceptance of model
Framework for Mobile Learning
The study would be testing the following hypotheses:
H1: Perceived usefulness is positively related to improving attitude towards use of educational radio and
mobile technology.
H2: Perceived ease of use has a positive effect on attitude towards use of educational radio and mobile
H3: Perceived ease of use has a positive effect on perceived usefulness of educational radio and mobile
H4: Interest is positively related to the use of educational radio and mobile technology.
H5: Technology self-efficacy is positively related to attitude hence, affecting learners’ acceptance towards
use of educational radio and mobile technology.
H6: Perceived usefulness will be associated with actual use of educational radio and mobile technology.
H7: Behavioural intention is positively associated with learners’ acceptance of the use of educational radio
and mobile technology.
H8: Perceived usefulness. Perceived ease of use, interest, technology self-efficacy, attitude, behavioural
intention, actual use of educational radio and mobile technology will predict learners’ acceptance of
delivery modes of distance learning tutorials
H9:There is a significant relationship between attitude of learners and their Behavioral intention to use
educational radio and mobile technology.
Data Analysis
• For the questionnaire, the Statistical Package
for Social Sciences (SPSS)was used in data
• Correlations was used to examine the
relationships between the constructs
• Regression analysis was used to find out the
prediction of acceptance of educational radio
and mobile phone for distance learning
• RESULTS of the overall model show that there is
significant correlation between
• PU and attitude towards the use of mobile for
tutorial delivery;
• PEU and PU
• PEU and attitude
• Interest to use and attitude
• TSE and attitude
• TSE and actual use
• Attitude and acceptance
Findings Contd
This could be explained as:
• If a system is easy to use ,users (distance learners) may
find it useful hence motivation to use it ,so in the end
actual usage behaviour happens as an indirect result of
ease of use.
• That is, students are motivated to adopt a new delivery
mode because of the functions it performs and
secondly on how easy it is to get the system to
perform the functions.
• TSE strongly determines PU,PEU,and user attitude
towards mobile phones for tutorial delivery
Contribution of the factors to the prediction of acceptance of modes of tutorials
delivery (N=201).
Unstandard coefficient
Std Error
Perceived usefulness
Perceived ease of use
Behavioural intention
Actual use
Qualitative Analysis
• The FGD sessions further corroborate the
quantitative data obtained. Seventy-five
percent of the respondent showed positive
acceptance of Mobile delivery mode for
Some Challenges
• Logging in problem: some students found it difficult to log in, some
names for logging in were not written correctly, e.g. student’s
name: JOSHUA, registered name: JOSUA, this made the students to
be confused and frustrated.
• During quiz, some complained about not being able to initiate the
quiz (this complaint was made about TEE course quiz, due to low
computer skills).
• Network problem: some students complained about loss of internet
• Special needs: Students with physical challenges were not catered
for in the project as they were not able to interact with content
which is wholly text-based. Some of these students complained and
requested that their physical challenge should be factored into the
design and implementation of the mobile learning project
• Low ICT skills: Some students complained about answering the quiz
questions but werenot able to submit because of low IT skills.
Lessons Learned
• Learners interest in the use of mobile delivery contributed
to their level of acceptance
• Support is major contributory factor to successful
implementation of mobile learning. Learners require
immense technical support
• Network services proved a great challenge among others
• Some students have low computer skills, presumably the
older ones. It is therefore imperative for intending Distance
learning students to have acquired sufficient computer and
internet skills in order to successfully participate in the
• Cost also is an issue. Although students were advised to
subscribe to a plan, this was not adhered to by all students.
• In order to make sure that network problems are taken
care of, students received messages not only through SMS
but also through their email accounts
Lessons Learned (contd)
• In order to reduce frustration on the part of students,
technical details requiring some degree of precision,
such as signing into the platform using lower case
rather than upper case was handled for students by the
team’s technical support.
• Students who find it difficult to navigate the mobile
platform could be helped by providing a demo of the
mobile platform on the Centre’s website and this could
also be demonstrated at the orientation programmes
since mobile phone/device is an integral tool for
learning in this mode.
• Course development for mobile learning requires some
technicality and rigour not required in print or online
materials. Course developers need skills to do this and
incentives to continue to do so.
• The findings established a rich picture of the
experiences of students.
• Students responded positively and for many,
their use has transformed learning – providing
choice, flexibility and enabling them to revisit
key concepts and ideas at convenience.
• This brings into question the nature of
support required by learners for effective use
of the delivery mode.
• Mobile learning technologies in general, will
continue to act as a stimulus for change –
particularly if, as we have seen in this research,
they tap into the needs of students and support
their learning.
• The ways in which students learn and
communicate will continue to evolve in response
to their changing environment.
• This highlights the importance of ongoing
research to understand the nature of these
changes and the implications they have for both
students and teachers in learning and teaching.

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