Three Integrated Ideas for Jakarta Baru

Report
Transforming Jakarta:
Three Integrated Ideas for Jakarta Baru*
Presented by Wisnubroto Sarosa
• Member of Indonesian Association of Planners
• Head of Sub-directorat of Monitoring and Evaluation of Spatial Plan Implementation Region I
Directorat General of Spatial Planning and Development
The Ministry of Public Works, Republic of Indonesia
46th EAROPH REGIONAL CONFERENCE
Iskandar Malaysia
20th November 2013
*Jakarta Baru (New Jakarta) is tagline of the current Jakarta’s Governor – Vice
Governor, Joko Widodo – Basuki Tjahja Purnama
1
Outline
The Jakarta’s challenges
The impacts
What have been done?
The ideas for better solution
2
The Challenges
3
The Importance of Jakarta
• Jakarta which is always the
centre of developmentt in
Indonesia along the country’s
history is becoming one of the
top ten largest cities in the
world.
4
Urban Sprawl Development & Administrative Division
Uncontrolled and sprawl development as well as administrative division change have
been happening in the Greater Jakarta (JABODETABEK) for last three decades
Significant Increase of Population
9.6
10.0
9.0
8.2
8.4
8.8
7.5
8.0
6.5
7.0
6.1
6.0
5.0
5.3
4.6
3.9
4.0
3.0
2.0
2.7
1.9
1.1
1.0
- 0.8
1970
4.1
5.9
4.7
5.0
4.0
2.7
DKI Jakarta
Bogor
Tangerang
Bekasi
3.2
1.5
2.1
Total: 28 million
1.1
1980
1990
2000
2010
For 40 years, population has been increasing signifcantly in the region of JABODETABEK
The Impacts
7
Increasing Commuters Phenomena
(in 1,000 unit car/day)
(2002) 247
(2010) 344
(2002) 262
(2010) 423
Increase 40%
City of Tangerang
City of Tangsel
Regency of Tangerang
BODETABEKDKI Jakarta
(2002) 743 Increase 49%
(2010) 1,105
Prediction 2013:
almost 2 million cars enter
Jakarta a day
Source: Commuter Survey JUTPI, 2010
DKI
Jakarta
(2002) 234
(2010) 338
City of Depok
City of Bogor
Regency of Bogor
Increase 61%
City of Bekasi
Regency of Bekasi
Increase 44%
Impact: Traffic Congestions
Severe traffic congestions everywhere and everytime cause everyone to be used spending
hours on the road every single day. A prediction: Jakarta’s traffic will be stuck in 2014
9
Significant Increase of Private Transportation
9000000
8000000
7000000
6000000
5000000
sepeda motor
kend pribadi
kend ang umum
4000000
Source: Commuter Survey JUTPI, 2010
3000000
2000000
1000000
The absence of adequate public
transportation increase excessively the
number of cars dan motorcycles
0
10
More Frequent Floods
The area, the frequency and the duration of
floods are increasing from year to year.
11
Spreading Slum Areas
Slum areas are spreading along the
rivers and the coastal areas.
12
Impact: Reducing the Area of Green Open Spaces
1985
37,2%
2010
13,94 %
2000
25,85 %
• The fast urban development in the
past has radically reduced
traditional green open spaces in
the city.
• The Spatial Planning Law No.
26/2007) suggest that the city
should provide minimum 30% GOS
of the area.
13
What Have Been Done?
14
The Existing Public Transportation
• For years, to serve commuters who work in
Jakarta, there have been small number of
railway networks which is inheritance from
the colonial era.
• Nowadays, there are 10 lanes, out of 15
lanes in the plan, of busway which serve
around Jakarta, besides dozen traditional
buses or minibuses managed by private
company or individual.
15
The Plan of Transportation Network
The Government and the
Provincial Goverment of Jakarta
plan to build:
• Six more toll-road enter to the
city (creating big debat)
• Two lanes of monorail (the
construction already started
after six years pending)
• A lane of MRT from the southern
part to the city center.
16
The Existing and Planned Floodways
• For managing the flood, the Central Government and the Provincial
Government of Jakarta (DKI) have been developing and managing several
canal floodways as well as waduks/ponds/reservoirs throughout the area.
Blue: managed and
developed by the
Government
Orange: managed and
developed by the DKI
17
The Ideas for Better Solution
18
Lessons from Other Megapolitans
Paris
New York
Berlin
Tokyo
London
Moscow
• Megapolitans around the world are deserved by dozens of railway system
19
Our Neighbourhood Already Started
Manila
Kuala Lumpur
Bangkok
Singapore
New Delhi
20
Idea One: Revitalisation of River Banks
• Creating more green open space on
the river banks by moving the people
on the slum areas into the social
housings build set back from the river
banks.
• Due to the limited space, it is needed
to build temporarily housing over the
river, during the construction of social
housings.
21
Idea One: the Resources
• Target 2010-2014 of the Ministry of Social
Housing (Menpera) to build 650 twin-block
(68,180 units) of Rusunawa (rental
apartement) and 200 tower (160,000 units)
have only reached 20% today.
• The Ministry of Public Works allocates Rp 5
Trilion (USD 500 million) 2010-2014 for
normalisation project of Ciliwung River. It does
not include Rp 3.4 Trillion (USD 340 million) of
the Ministry and the DKI Jakarta 2012 budget
for normalisation project of 13 rivers in
Jakarta for anticipating floods.
• In fact, there are a lot of budget for building
the social housing and developing the rivers.
The general problems are usually coming from
the aquisition of lands.
22
Idea Two: Building Elevated Train
• There are 13 rivers and canals, small and
larger, neat and dirty, flow through Jakarta.
Those are one of network of public space that
can be used without acquiring the land.
• The other networks are the
median of toll roads and
the high-voltage
transmission which pass
trough the middle of the
city.
• The grid need to be
modified in order to be
able to build the railway
23
Idea Two: Examples of Elevated Train Abroad
24
Idea Two: Elevated Train Networks in Jakarta
• Among the 13 rivers/canals,
it just takes 3 or 4 to build
the elevated train/monorail
network. Those networks are
to service especially the
comutters from the southern
part of Jakarta (Depok,
Bogor)
• While the train/monorail
over the toll road are
provided especially for the
commuters from eastern and
western parts of Jakarta
(Tangerang and Bekasi)
Monorail/train
over the river
Monorail/train
over the toll road
25
Idea Three: Building ‘the Man behind the Gun’
Change the Mindset
Due to more market oriented of the urban development since two-three
decades ago, issuing permit by Local Government for private investors to build
malls, apartements and city superblocks has been more dominant rather than
improving the urban kampongs.
1934
1969 - 1984
1985 - 1989
1990 - 1999
1999 - 2005
2006 - Today
Kampoengveerbetaring
MHT I:
KIP/JUDP
MHT II:
‘DAS’
1980:
Aga Khan
Award
MHT III:
‘Tribina’
P2KP:
Penanggulangan
Kemis1999 kinan
WB’s Cities Alliances:
“Global Best Practices”
PNPM
Perkotaan
26
Idea Three: Building ‘the Man behind the Gun’
Such development has been creating the processes of
‘gentrification’ as well as ‘marginalisation’ of the urban poor to
suburb.
27
Idea Three: Building Concensus and Cooperation
among the Stakeholders
Start from intitutions in the
Government
Provincial
Government of
Jakarta (DKI)
Directorat
General of
Spatial Planning
(DJPR-PU)
Directorat
General of Water
Resources
(SDA-PU)
Directorat
General of
Human
Settlements
(DJCK –PU)
Ministry of
Social Housing
(Kemenpera)
Land
Certification
Agency (BPN)
Directorat
General of
Human
Settlements
(DJCK –PU)
28
Idea Three: Creating a Multistakeholder Cooperation
Civil Society
Organisations
Facilitating the
community to include
the projects
Zakat-based
Trust Fund
Quasi-public
Organisation
Managing the
Projects
Government
Institutions
Contributing in the
project depending
on their own role
Managing funding from
the people of Jakarta
Zakat-based
Private
Private
Trust
Fund
Sectors
Sectors
Contributing and investing in
certain parts of the projects
29
Conclusion
• For transforming Jakarta into a more livable city it is required
to have an integrated strategy which is using all potential
resources (spacial, social and financial).
• The strategy should be implemented in a fast way and a short
period in order to not creating other excessive impacts
related to social and economic matters.
• The proposed integrated ideas could hopefully overcome
three big issues in Jakarta today: traffic congestions, slum
areas and green open spaces.
30
Thank You
See you in Jakarta
at EAROPH World Congress 2014
31

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