Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga

Report
Development of Cryogenic Insulation
Material for Liquefied Hydrogen.
Experience in Space Programs
Uldis Stirna, Ugis Cabulis, Anda Fridrihsone
Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
•
•
founded in 1946
120 employees
•
32 doctors of science
•
turnover 2.0 mil. EUR
The main scientific research are based on the beneficial and ecologically
balanced technologies aimed at maximum and sustainable usage of the plant
biomass potential.
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
Polymer laboratory
History
•The first activities in polyurethane chemistry in 1964,
• In PUR chemistry and technology 40 years,
• Main activities in field – PUR from renewable raw materials: tall oil, oxalic
acid, different vegetable oils, starch.
Polymer laboratory
EVolution
Present
BioPurFil
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
Polymer laboratory
History
Present
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
LH2 & LOX Tank
Configuration
for the
Upper Stage
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
Cryogenic Insulation Requirements
• Thermal: heat flux < 0.2 W/m² h  minimized boil-off mass  low
therm.conductivity especcially in cryogenic regime required.
• Resistance against aerothermal heating: > 10kW/m² & higher  no
significant degradation low flammability  self extinguishing.
• Thermal expansion: difference in thermal expansion of substrates and
insulation shall be low.
• Cryo-pumping: low or negligible  influenced by morphological structure
• Mechanical properties:
- Tensile strength (avoid crack formation due to thermal and pressure loads),
- Compressive strength  difficult in cryo regime,
- Shear strength  loads from flow field in outer layer and I/F to substrate.
• Permeability: limit concentration of hazardous gases and those which can
degrade thermal performance  compatibility to purging gases (He + N2).
• Mass & volume: m< 2.2kg/m², thickness < 60mm.
• Other requirements: pollution during ground & flight  recurring costs.
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
Foams Mechanical and
Thermal Properties
Chemical Structure
and Mc of Foam
Material Polymer
Matrix
Thermal Stresses and
Thermal Strain Properties
SOFI Material
Morphology
SOFI Material
Technological
Parameters
Thermal and Diffusion
Properties (Cryopumping)
External
Tank
Insulation
Cryogenic
Resistance
SOFI Material
Deffects
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
Mc influence on mechanical characteristics
Conventional PU foams
Tensile strength, MPa
2
1,5
1
0,5
296 K
77 K
0
0
500
Mc
1000
1500
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
Mc influence on mechanical characteristics
Elongation at break, %
30
296 K
77 K
20
10
Conventional PU foams
0
0
500
Mc
1000
1500
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
Mc influence on mechanical characteristics
5
4
KS
3
2
Ks = e77 / Dl77-300
1
0
0
500
1000
1500
Mc
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
+
The upper layer of spray PUR performs mainly the
heat protection functions
The middle layer during the flight should perform mainly
the functions of a good thermal insulation material
-
The layer adjacent to the metal (the cold part), are
especially important – this layer should be capable of
resisting the tensile stress, which arises as the LH2 tank
is fuelled
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
Thermal Conductance Measurements at Cryogenic Temperatures
Cryostat
Liquid
Hydrogen
Calorymeter
Heater
Plate
Sample 1
Sample 2
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
Cooperation with EADS Astrium GmbH since 2005, the following
common projects were done:
2005
No. M15/4500089060
Feasibility Study on Cryogenic Insulation
materials and Technologies
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
2006
No. 06/EADS-ST GmbH/ Latvian / 1 / D.2371.01
Bacground study
2006 - 07
No. 06/ASTRIUM GmbH / Latvian C3B / 0001
Feasibility Study , Preparation of the First Feasability Tests
2007 - 08
No. 07/ASTRIUM GmbH / Latvian C3B / 0001
C3B – Technologies for re-ignitable cryogenic upper stages, Internal Insulation (ITI)
2007 - 08
No. 07/ASTRIUM GmbH / Latvian C3B / 0002
External Thermal Insulation (ETI)
2009 - 10
No. 09/ASTRIUM GmbH / LSIWC-Success/0001
Continuation of External Cryogenic Insulation (ETI) Development
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
15
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
15
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga
Development of Cryogenic Insulation Material for Liquefied Hydrogen
Thank you for attention !
Workshop „Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Research and Application” , Oct.4-5, 2012, Riga

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