Electron Configuration

Report
Energy Level Diagrams
6s
5p
5s
E
4s
3s
Hund’s rule – e- half-fill
4d
eachPictorial
orbital inrepresentation
a sublevel
of electron
distribution
before
pairing
up
4p
Aufbau principle – e- occupy
the
in orbitals
3d
lowest energy orbital available
p. 188 in text
3p
Pauli exclusion principle – max 2 eper orbital (spin up and spin down)
2p
2s
1s
n = 1 l = 0 ml = 0 ms = -½
Orbitals Being Filled
1
Periods
1
1s
8
Groups
2
3
4
5
2
2s
2p
3
3s
3p
4
4s
3d
4p
5
5s
4d
5p
6
6s
La
5d
6p
7
7s
Ac
6d
Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 345
6
7 1s
4f
Lanthanide series
5f
Actinide series
Energy Level Diagrams
6s
5p
4d
5s
E
4p
3d
4s
3p
3s
2p
2s
1s
Anions - Add e- to lowest energy
sublevel available.
Energy Level Diagrams
6s
5p
4d
5s
E
4p
3d
4s
3p
3s
2p
2s
1s
Cations - Remove e- from
sublevel with highest
value of n.
Energy Level Diagrams
6s
5p
4d
5s
E
4p
3d
4s
3p
3s
2p
2s
1s
Cations - Remove e- from
sublevel with highest
value of n.
Energy Level Diagram of a Many-Electron Atom
6s
6p
5d
5s
5p
4d
4s
4p
3s
3p
2s
2p
3d
Arbitrary
Energy Scale
1s
NUCLEUS
O’Connor, Davis, MacNab, McClellan, CHEMISTRY Experiments and Principles 1982, page 177
4f
28
Orbital Diagrams for Nickel
1s
2
2s
2
6
2p
3s
2
6
3p
2
4s
3d
Ni
58.6934
8
Excited State
1s 2 2s 2
2p 6
3s 2
3p6
4s1
3d 9
Pauli Exclusion
1s
2s
2p
3s
3p
4s
3d
Hund’s Rule
1s
2s
2p
3s
3p
4s
3d
Homework
• p. 191 #3alt,4
• p. 197 #5
Electron Configuration
• H 1s1
• Ca 1s22s22p63s23p64s2
• Pb
1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p
2
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cl- 1s22s22p63s23p6
Fe2+ 1s22s22p63s23p63d6
Fe3+ 1s22s22p63s23p63d5
Ca
[Ar]4s2
Shorthand: [noble gas]
Cl[Ar]
Fe2+ [Ar]3d6
Electron Filling in Periodic Table
s
s
p
1
2
d
3
4
K
4s1
Ca
4s2
Sc
3d1
Ti
3d2
4f
Energy
n=4
n=3
V
3d3
Cr
3d54
Mn
3d5
Fe
3d6
Co
3d7
Ni
3d8
Cu
9
3d
3d10
Cr
Cu
4s13d5
4s13d10
Zn
3d10
Ga
4p1
Ge
4p2
As
4p3
Se
4p4
Br
4p5
Kr
4p6
4d
4p
3d
4s
3p
3s
Cr
4s13d5
4s
3d
2p
n=2
2s
n=1
Cu
1s
4s13d10
4s
3d
Homework
• p. 194 #6-11
• p. 197 #1,2,6-10,13
Anomalous e- Configurations
Ferromagnetic – Fe, Co and Ni are smaller, closely packed atoms able to orient
themselves in a magnetic field (group of these atoms oriented in the same direction
– domain theory) , explains full magnetism
Paramagnetism – substances exhibit a weak magnetic attraction
 believed to be caused by the presence of unpaired electrons
Q: Which substances containing calcium, zinc, copper (II) and
manganese(II) ions are paramagnetic?
CaSO4(s)
ZnSO4(s)
CuSO4(s)
MnSO4(s)
Quantum Challenge
The arrangement of elements in the periodic table is a
direct consequence of the allowed values for the four
quantum numbers. If the laws of physics allowed these
numbers to have different values, the appearance of
the periodic table would change.
Suppose, in a different universe, the quantum number
ml has the allowed values of ml = 0,1,…+l. All other
allowed values are unchanged so the set of allowed
values is:
n = 1,2,3…
l = 0,1,2…n-1
ml = 0,1…+l
ms = ½,-½
Task:
1. Design the periodic table for the first 30
elements.
2. Label the s,p and d block elements.
3. Shade or colour the noble gas-like elements.
Show your work!!

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