The MYRRHA project - KTH Royal Institute of Technology Reactor

Report
MYRRHA
Multipurpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications
Contributing to the 3rd Pillar of the European Strategy for P&T
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
MYRRHA
ESNII + summer school –– Stockholm
May 18-20, 2014
Marc Schyns
SCK•CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium
[email protected] or [email protected]
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SCK•CEN
Content
 SCK•CEN presentation
 MYRRHA project
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SCK•CEN
 Belgian Nuclear Research Centre is a foundation
 cradle of nuclear research, applications and energy development in
Belgium
 major international player in the field of nuclear R&D
 creator of "spin-off's": IRE, BN, BP, VITO
 tutorship: federal Secretary of Energy Melchior Wathelet
 today: ~700 staff, >50% with academic degree + 70 PhD students
 annual turnover: 125 M€
 45% government support
 55% contract work
 research towards sustainability
www.sckcen.be
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SCK•CEN
Statutory mission of SCK•CEN
 research on
 safety
 waste management
 protection of man and environment
 fissile and other strategic materials
 societal implications of endurable energy
 training and education
 services towards
 nuclear industry
 the medical sector
 the authorities in the field of nuclear applications
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SCK•CEN
Environment Health Safety
'Analyse'
Radiation
Effects
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SCK•CEN
Nuclear Material Science
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SCK•CEN
99Mo/99mTc
Production
30-40 Million medical procedures per year = 100.000 patients per day
65% (peak) - 25% (yearly) from BR2
but most existing research reactors are getting old
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SCK•CEN
Some pioneering highlights
1st pressurized water
reactor outside of US:
BR3
World’s first underground
laboratory for R&D on HL
waste disposal: HADES
Inventor of
innovative nuclear
fuel: MOX
Highest performing
material testing reactor
in Europe: BR2
World’s first
lead-based ADS:
GUINEVERE
World’s premiere project
for transmutation of
nuclear waste: MYRRHA
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
MYRRHA - Accelerator Driven System
Reactor
Accelerator
• Subcritical or Critical modes
• 65 to 100 MWth
(600 MeV - 4 mA proton)
Spallation Source
Multipurpose
Flexible
Irradiation
Facility
Fast
Neutron
Source
Lead-Bismuth
coolant
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SCK•CEN
MYRRHA Accelerator Challenge
fundamental parameters (ADS)
particle
p
beam energy
600 MeV
beam current
4 mA
mode
CW
MTBF
> 250 h
failure = beam trip > 3 s
implementation
superconducting linac
frequency
176.1 / 352.2 / 704.4 MHz
reliability = redundancy
double injector
“fault tolerant” scheme
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SCK•CEN
About beam trips
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SCK•CEN
MYRRHA Accelerator Challenge
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
MYRRHA linac
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SCK•CEN
Reactor layout






Reactor Vessel
Reactor Cover
Core Support Structure



Core Barrel
Core Support Plate
Jacket



Core Plug
Multifunctional Channels
Core Restraint System

IVFS

IVFHM
Core
 Reflector Assemblies
 Dummy Assemblies
 Fuel Assemblies
Spallation Target Assembly and Beam Line
Above Core Structure





Control Rods, Safety Rods, Mo-99 production units
Primary Heat Exchangers
Primary Pumps
Si-doping Facility
Diaphragm

IVFHS
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SCK•CEN
Core and Fuel Assemblies
 151 positions
 37 multifunctional plugs
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SCK•CEN
Core and Fuel Assemblies
 Fuel
 Cladding in 15-15 Ti
 Wire wrap
 Wrapper
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SCK•CEN
Cooling systems
 Decay heat removal (DHR) through
secondary loops
 4 independent loops
 redundancy (each loop has 100%
capability)
 passive operation (natural
convection in primary, secondary
and tertiary loop)
 Ultimate DHR through RVCS
(natural convection)
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SCK•CEN
Cooling systems
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SCK•CEN
Integration into building
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SCK•CEN
Remote Handling
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SCK•CEN
Remote Handling (Fuel recovery)
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SCK•CEN
Multipurpose facility
Fuel research
Φtot = 0.5 to 1.1015 n/cm².s
F = 1 to 5.1014 n/cm².s
(ppm He/dpa ~ 10)
in medium-large volumes
Material research
FFast = 1 to 5.1014 n/cm².s
(En>1 MeV) in large volumes
Fission GEN IV
50 to 100 MWth
FFast = ~1015 n/cm².s
(En>0.75 MeV)
Waste
Fth = 0.5 to 2.1015 n/cm².s
(En<0.4 eV)
Multipurpose
hYbrid
Research
Reactor for
High-tech
Applications
Radioisotopes
Fusion
High energy LINAC
600 MeV – 1 GeV
Long irradiation time
Fundamental
research
Silicon
doping
Fth = 0.1 to 1.1014 n/cm².s
(En<0.4 eV)
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
Relative radiotoxicity
Motivation for transmutation
transmutation
of spent fuel
spent fuel
reprocessing
no
reprocessing
Uranium
naturel
Time (years)
Duration Reduction
1.000x
Volume Reduction
100x
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
Fast Neutron are unavoidable for transmutation
• To transmute MAs, we need to fission them
• The ration Fission/Capture is more favorable with fast neutrons
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
European Strategy for P&T
 The implementation of P&T of a large part of the high-level nuclear
wastes in Europe needs the demonstration of its feasibility at an
“engineering” level. The respective R&D activities could be
arranged in four “building blocks”:
1. Demonstration of the capability to process a sizable amount of spent fuel from
commercial LWRs in order to separate plutonium (Pu), uranium (U) and minor
actinides (MA),
2. Demonstration of the capability to fabricate at a semi-industrial level the
dedicated fuel needed to load in a dedicated transmuter (JRC/ITU),
3. Design and construction of one or more dedicated transmuters,
4. Provision of a specific installation for processing of the dedicated fuel
unloaded from the transmuter, which can be of a different type than the one
used to process the original spent fuel unloaded from the commercial power
plants, together with the fabrication of new dedicated fuel.
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
P&T inspired many Euratom projects
TOPIC
FP5
FP6
FP7
MUSE
DM2 ECATS
FREYA
Fuels
FUTURE
DM3 AFTRA
FAIRFUELS
Materials
MEGAPIE
Coupling
SPIRE, TECLA
Design
PDS-XADS
MATTER
DM4 DEMETRA
DM1 DESIGN
GETMAT
CDT
MAX
ADOPT
EUROTRANS
SERIM G4
Thermal-Hydraulics
ASCHLIM
THINS
LFR
-
ESLY
LEADER
Infrastructures
-
VELLA, MTRI3
ADRIANA, SARGEN,
NEWLANCER
Scenario Studies
-
PATEROS
ARCAS
Safety
-
-
SEARCH, SILER,
MAXSIMA
28 M€
31 M€
31 M€
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
Is sub-criticality a luxury?
Both Critical reactors as well as ADS can be used as MAs transmuters
Nevertheless, critical reactors, heavily loaded with MAs, can experience severe safety
issue due to reactivity effet induced by a smaller fraction of delayed neutrons.
ADS can operate in a more flexible and safer manner even if heavily loaded with MAs
hence leading to efficient transmutation therefore we say that sub-criticality is not a
luxury but a necessity.
accelerator
Proton Beam
Spallation Target
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
ADS is the most efficient system for burning MAs
Pu Production Rate (grams / GWh)
MA Production Rate (grams / GWh)
* Mike Cappiello, (LANL), “The Potential Role of Accelerator Driven Systems in the US”, ICRS-10/RPS’2004, Madeira (PT), 2004
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
FP6-PATEROS
A European approach to P&T
 P&T useful for countries
 in phase out
 with active nuclear programme
 Reduction of volume & heat load of waste
 P&T should be seen at a regional/European level
 Scenario studies: 4 country groups
 A: stagnant or phase-out
 B: continuation and Pu optimisation for FRs
 C: subset of A in “nuclear renaissance”
 D: non-nuclear to go nuclear
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
Even with completely different national NE policies
European solution for HLW works with ADS
Spent
fuel A
Reprocessing
A
GROUP A
Pu + MA
ADS fuel
fabrication
Pu + MA
MA
Reprocessing
B
ADS
ADS fuel
reprocessing
Spent fuel
ADS
SHARED
REGIONAL
FACILITIES
 Advantages for A
• ADS shared with B
• ADS burn A’s Pu&
MA
• Smaller Fu-Cycle
units & shared
Pu
MOX
Fabrication
PWR
MOX
Spent
fuel B
UOX
Fabrication
GROUP B
PWR
UOX
Enriched
U
Scenario 1 objective: elimination of A’s spent fuel by 2100
A = Countries Phasing Out, B = Countries Continuing
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
If an ADS can’t produce electricity
than it can’t also transmute !
 Indeed, the 1st Objectif of an ADS is to burn efficiently
and in a concentrated manner MAs !
 If it burns MAs, this means it produces heat that can be
turned into electricity.
 The total thermal efficiency of an ADS is related to the
two following yields:
 The accelerator yield hacc = P->reactor / Pe (Acc)
 The yield of the thermal-dynamic cycle of the sub-critical reactor
hth= Pe (net) / Pth
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
MYRRHA: hTotal = 0.14
Pacc = 16 MWe
hacc = 0.15
600 MeV x 4 mA = 2.4 MW
ΔPe = +12 MWe
Pe = 28 MWe
hth = 0.33
Pth = 85 MWth
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SCK•CEN
EFIT: hTotal = 0.32
Pacc = ~34 MWe
hacc = 0.35
600 MeV x 20 mA = 12 MW
ΔPe = +126 MWe
Pe = 160 MWe
hth = 0.40
Pth = 400 MWth
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
JADS: hTotal = 0.37
Pacc = ~67 MWe
hacc = 0.45
1500 MeV x 20 mA = 30 MW
ΔPe = +293
MWe
Pe = 360 MWe
hth = 0.45
Pth = 800 MWth
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
But MYRRHA is more than research on
ADS & Transmutation
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
Multipurpose facility
Fuel research
Φtot = 0.5 to 1.1015 n/cm².s
F = 1 to 5.1014 n/cm².s
(ppm He/dpa ~ 10)
in medium-large volumes
Material research
FFast = 1 to 5.1014 n/cm².s
(En>1 MeV) in large volumes
Fission GEN IV
50 to 100 MWth
FFast = ~1015 n/cm².s
(En>0.75 MeV)
Waste
Fth = 0.5 to 2.1015 n/cm².s
(En<0.4 eV)
Multipurpose
hYbrid
Research
Reactor for
High-tech
Applications
Radioisotopes
Fusion
High energy LINAC
600 MeV – 1 GeV
Long irradiation time
Fundamental
research
Silicon
doping
Fth = 0.1 to 1.1014 n/cm².s
(En<0.4 eV)
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
Material Irradiation Performances
[email protected] MW
IPS in Chan [0 0 0]
IPS in Chan [2 0 0]
Sample n°
dpa/EFPY
Φtot
dpa/EFPY
Φtot
8
18.1
2.38E+15
16.2
2.12E+15
7
23.0
2.85E+15
20.7
2.54E+15
6
25.9
3.19E+15
23.3
2.85E+15
5
27.5
3.37E+15
24.5
3.02E+15
4
27.2
3.39E+15
24.5
3.03E+15
3
25.7
3.23E+15
22.9
2.89E+15
2
22.3
2.92E+15
19.9
2.62E+15
1
17.3
2.50E+15
15.5
2.23E+15
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
Irradiation capabilities of IPS
Sub-critical @ 73 MW
IPS
Total flux,
n/(cm2s)
Fast
(> 0.75 MeV)
flux, n/(cm2s)
Radiation
damage,
DPA/FPY
Helium
production,
appm/FPY
Ratio
appm
He/DPA
1
2.64×1015
4.20×1014
22.3
7.66
0.343
2
2.72×1015
4.29×1014
23.0
10.41
0.452
3
2.75×1015
4.29×1014
23.1
5.94
0.257
4
2.72×1015
4.18×1014
22.5
6.59
0.293
5
2.70×1015
4.35×1014
22.7
6.52
0.288
6
2.68×1015
4.23×1014
22.8
10.78
0.474
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
Prepare the path for Fusion DEMO
Irradiation capabilities under the spallation target
+10 cm
0 cm
-30 cm
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
MYRRHA-IMIFF for fusion material
 In critical mode (fast reactor), appmHe/dpa ~ 0.2 to 1
 not optimal for fusion materials experiments
 In sub-critical mode (ADS), high appmHe/dpa ratio is
reached, specially in the region of the window of
spallation source
 Volume of 1 lt with appmHe/dpa ~ 12 close to
spallation target
Useful volume
30 lt with range from 5 to 20 appmHe/dpa
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
MYRRHA for fusion irradiations
Estimated damage induced in DEMO and proposed
irradiation conditions in IFMIF and MYRRHA-IMIFF
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
Multipurpose facility
Fuel research
Φtot = 0.5 to 1.1015 n/cm².s
F = 1 to 5.1014 n/cm².s
(ppm He/dpa ~ 10)
in medium-large volumes
Material research
FFast = 1 to 5.1014 n/cm².s
(En>1 MeV) in large volumes
Fission GEN IV
50 to 100 MWth
FFast = ~1015 n/cm².s
(En>0.75 MeV)
Waste
Fth = 0.5 to 2.1015 n/cm².s
(En<0.4 eV)
Multipurpose
hYbrid
Research
Reactor for
High-tech
Applications
Radioisotopes
Fusion
High energy LINAC
600 MeV – 1 GeV
Long irradiation time
Fundamental
research
Silicon
doping
Fth = 0.1 to 1.1014 n/cm².s
(En<0.4 eV)
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
[email protected]
MYRRHA - Concept
• thin refractory metal foils
• carbide powders
• liquid targets
•surface ion source
•ECR ion source
•RILIS
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SCK•CEN
Beam-Splitting System (Concept)
600 MeV
~ 100 - 200 mA
pulsed beam
(up to 250 Hz)
600 - 800 MeV
2 - 4 mA
CW
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SCK•CEN
Applications ([email protected] Applications)
Masses
Nuclear
Physics
Condensed
Matter
Bohr-Weisskopf: A- and g-factors
Decay (log ft, Pxn/yp)
Ultra-high selectivity: LIST configuration
Rare decays: GTGR, b xn/yp, cluster decay, SHE
Extreme precision: e.g., crystal spectrometry
Reactions (s, B(E2), C2S)
Astrophysics
Fundamental
Interactions
QED tests in HCI
d<r2>, m, Q
Atomic
Physics
Prototyping
Ft values,
Correlations (b-n,…),
EDM
Mössbauer,
b-NMR, PAC,
EC-SLI
Correlations (b -n, ...), EDM: Statistics +
control systematic effects of setup
Systematic sample measurements
Chemistry
Biology
Medical
Applications
Typical Beam
Time/Experiment
SHE chemistry
Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu,
Zn b-NMR in
proteins
Systematic sample measurements
Radiopharmacy
Systematic production of Radiopharmaceuticals
(prototyping)
Radiotherapy (prototyping)
Dedicated radiotherapy center
Day
Week
Month
© 2012
YearCopyrightSCK•CEN
[email protected] - Highlights
48
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SCK•CEN
Multipurpose facility
Fuel research
Φtot = 0.5 to 1.1015 n/cm².s
F = 1 to 5.1014 n/cm².s
(ppm He/dpa ~ 10)
in medium-large volumes
Material research
FFast = 1 to 5.1014 n/cm².s
(En>1 MeV) in large volumes
Fission GEN IV
50 to 100 MWth
FFast = ~1015 n/cm².s
(En>0.75 MeV)
Waste
2.1015 n/cm².s
Fth = 0.5 to
(En<0.4 eV)
Multipurpose
hYbrid
Research
Reactor for
High-tech
Applications
Radioisotopes
Fusion
High energy LINAC
600 MeV – 1 GeV
Long irradiation time
Fundamental
research
Silicon
doping
Fth = 0.1 to 1.1014 n/cm².s
(En<0.4 eV)
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
Production of space specific radioisotopes in MYRRHA
thermal neutron flux-traps
Core lay-out:
 In reflector positions
 Cooled by water
 In thermalized neutron field
 Transport by rabbit system
Target plates
in IPS:
 Positions also usable for
testing of materials in
thermal field!
=> Both are possible in MYRRHA:
 Testing of materials/fuels in fast (core) field
 Testing of materials/fuels in thermalized (peripheral) field
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
European Context
ESFRI
European
Strategic
Forum for
Research
Infrastructure
Knowledge
Economy
Energy
Independence
SET Plan
European
Strategic
Energy Plan
27.11.2010
Confirmed on ESFRI
priority list projects
15.11.2010
in ESNII
(SNETP goals)
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
Belgian commitment: secured
International consortium: under construction
2nd phase (11 y)
others 576 M€
Consortium
Belgium 60 M€
(12 M€/y x 5 y)
Belgium 324 M€
(36 M€/y x 9 y)
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
The project schedule
2010-2014
2015
Front End
Tendering &
Engineering
Procurement
Design
2016-2018
Construction of
components &
civil engineering
2019
On site
assembly
2020-2022
2023
2024Commissioning Progressive
Full
start-up
exploitation
Minimise
technological
risks
Secure
the licensing
Secure a
sound
management
and
investment
structure
PDP
preliminary
dismantling
plan
Central
Project
Team
PSAR
preliminary
safety
assesment
Owner
Consortium
Group
EIAR
environmental
impact
assesment
Owner
Engineering
Team
FEED
(Front End
Engineering
Design)
2010-2014
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SCK•CEN
MYRRHA international network
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
INVESTMENT PHASE
International Members Consortium – Phase 1
As of early 2012
Primary
«investors»
Belgian Federal Ministry
of Energy
(50%)
Belgian Federal Ministry
of Science Policy (50%)
Participation vehicle
(Consortium members)
Contribution to
investment
capital
(960 M€’09)
«ERIC» (*)
IPR
management
rules tbd
SCK•CEN
(on behalf of
Belgian
Federal
Government)
40 %
BE
Major European partners
EU country
Public
foundation
EU countries
A major Asian partner
Asian country
Asian country
EU FP7 (RTD) / SET-Plan (Energy)
EU participation
EU
ROW
ROW participation
ROW
(*) European Research
Infrastructure Consortium
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
OPERATION PHASE
International Members Consortium - Phase 2
«ERIC» (*)
CLOSED/
SHARED
INFORMATION
for MoC
OPEN
INFORMATION
SHARED
INFORMATION
for participants
CLOSED
INFORMATION
for participants
Members of Consortium ~25%
- Individual research of a member of Consortium
- Collaborative research amongst members of
Consortium
- 3 years program commitment
Open User Facility
BENEFITS for Members of Consortium
• Board position to control overal operation
• Priority of access
• Potential benefit of low price (compensation
profit from commercial revenues)
• Capacity transfer flexibility (rules tbd)
~25%
- Governments funding
- Criteria of research excellence
- Independant program access committee (PAC)
~25%
Collaborative research
- Distribution of information to participants
Contract research…..
Commercial services
- RI
- NTD Silicon
~25%
SCK•CEN
as qualified and
licenced operator of
the MYRRHA
infrastructure under
contractual
arrangement with ERIC
(*) European Research
Infrastructure Consortium
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
MYRRHA: EXPERIMENTAL ACCELERATOR DRIVEN SYSTEM
A pan-European, innovative and unique facility at Mol (BE)
BR2 reactor
(existing)
Utilities
buildings
MYRRHA
reactor
building
MYRRHA LINAC
high energy tunnel
ECR source &
Injector Building
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
SCK•CEN in brief
 SCK•CEN is an internationally renowned research centre
 SCK•CEN’s innovative research is directed to the safe application of
nuclear energy on both short and long term;
 SCK•CEN contributes in an important manner to non-power related
society-relevant applications of nuclear energy;
 SCK•CEN emphasizes the need for fundamental knowledge,
education and training: the SCK•CEN Academy for Nuclear Science
and Technology;
 SCK•CEN has an innovative future-oriented project MYRRHA;
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
Conclusions
 MYRRHA As a Multipurpose Fast Spetrum irradiation
facility selected by ESFRI, is responding to:
 The issue of addressing the nuclear waste legacy of present
reactor technology through advance options (ADS, P&T)
 The SNETP need for a multipurpose research infrastructure
expressed in its Strategic Research Agenda whatever the
considered technology for Gen.IV systems
 The Objective of Belgium and SCK•CEN to maintain a high level
expertise in the country in the nuclear safety, nuclear technology
and nuclear competencies independently of the future of NE
 The objective of the European Commission to make available a
series of relevant irradiations facilities for the fusion material
research community towards the DEMO construction
 Secure society needs for RI for medical applications and DoppedSi for renewable Energy
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN
Q&A
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SCK•CEN
Copyright © 2013 - SCKCEN
PLEASE NOTE!
This presentation contains data, information and formats for dedicated use ONLY and may not be copied,
distributed or cited without the explicit permission of the SCK•CEN. If this has been obtained, please reference it
as a “personal communication. By courtesy of SCK•CEN”.
SCK•CEN
Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie
Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucléaire
Belgian Nuclear Research Centre
Stichting van Openbaar Nut
Fondation d'Utilité Publique
Foundation of Public Utility
Registered Office: Avenue Herrmann-Debrouxlaan 40 – BE-1160 BRUSSELS
Operational Office: Boeretang 200 – BE-2400 MOL
Copyright © 2012
SCK•CEN

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