Influence of human factors and affective technology in utilitarian mobile applications Erkki Kurkinen [email protected] +358400247680 - dissertation supervisor: - format: - status of this plan: - time schedule: prof Pekka Neittaanmäki collection of papers draft research plan started Jan 2010, final ~2012 My CV MSc in 1982 in Technical University of Tampere (computer technology) Additional studies in University of Oulu (mathematics, physics, theoretical physics) Career in Nokia Corp. up to 2009 in production, R&D, product marketing, sales, system development, concepting In several positions in several international businesses: telecommunication, TETRA, mobile networks, multimedia devices Now: senior researcher and PhD student in Scope program in Faculty of IT in JYU Introduction User behaviour in accepting new technology (computers, tv, ITsystems) has been studied since 50-60’s Mobile technology user studies done since 80’s Traditionally there have been spesific research methods for different user types (i.e. hedonic users, utilitarian users) • • • • PEOU=percieved ease of use PU= percieved usability CA =cognitive absorption TAM, TAM2 =technical acceptance model Currently, models for customer acceptance in mobile applications are being developed as well in the community Utilitarian use (police) is assumed to get closer to the hedonic use (consumer) = one of the hypotheses in this research In this research the goal is to create new methods for technology acceptance for utilitarian users having elements from existing models from both user types and use in empirical tests to prove hypotheses Definitions Utilitarian user – Device, service or application is used for increasing task performance, professional use (in this study police and fire) – Benefit is external of the system itself Hedonic user – Device, service or appplication is used for pleasure and enjoy; system provides value to the user (consumer) – Benefit is internal to system Human factor – physical or cognitive property of an individual or social behavior which is specific to humans and influences functioning of technological systems Definitions (cont.) Affective technology – Technology that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences emotion and other affective phenomena User experience – a person's perceptions and responses that result from the use or anticipated use of a product, system or service (ISO 9241-210) Traditional acceptance models Utilitarian service • • • • TRA TAM TAM2 … Hedonic service • • • • UTAUT Kaasinen Pedersen … - results User study - results User study Sketch of a new acceptance model development Utilitarian service Hedonic service N e w m o d e l s User User study User study User study study R e s u l t s V a l i d a t i o n s Conclusions Research goals Research questions: – What are the users experiences of the utilitarian users of the mobile applications ? – What type of attractions (if any) there are in the devices and applications for the utilitarian users ? – Can an utilitarian mobile device be affective (in positive sense) making the user to use the application more often and with pleasure ? – Can a nicely working mobile device or application encourage the user to use the service more and more and take everything out of it ? – Can a nicely working mobile device or application encourage the utilitarian user to enjoy doing her/his duties ? – Can a nicely working mobile device or application get the utilitarian user to do her/his duties more effectively – What kind of device, service or application can give answers to all previous questions ? Preliminary hypotheses H1: Utilitarian use is getting influences from hedonic use H2: Utilitarian users can enjoy of the interactions not dissimilar to hedonic users H3: Intention to use the utilitarian system will remarkably grow after integrating hedonic features into it H4: Utilitarian users can remarkably benefit from hedonic features in their systems User studies Application A i n t Application r o B d u Application c t C i o Application n D s Pre Interview Interview System in use Results & Conclusions User studies • Police users – Finland (Vaasa police, Police College in Tampere,Jkl) – UK (Wiltshire, Hertfordshire) • Fire departments – Emergency Service College (Pelastusopisto) in Kuopio – Los Angeles Fire department Current state 2 conference papers in 2 conferences (ISCRAM, IDRC) preseted First user study on going – Vaasa police – 1st system under test: bar code based work flow and work allocation system (Upcode Oy application + Nokia E75) – 3 x 3 weeks sessions, each with separate applications Our own Scope applications development ongoing, user studies to start soon – User experience demonstrators • Mobile police station in a vehicle + multimedia device • Use of semantic content • Use of mobile agents – Sumo server + mobile clients • Social media type (closed system) • Location • Chat, images, videos, voice & document storage Benefits of the study results Adds the understanding of the intentions to use and accept technology of the utilitarian users Helps service/device R&D developent work in mitigating customer acceptance risks in development of new sevices and products Gives new tools for utilitarian customers to evaluate and minimise their own risk on introduction and utlization of new services Gives tools for the design thinking -type of development of IT systems Conclusion Utilitarian users will get more and more features for their ICT systems which are better used and known in hedonic systems Acceptance models need to be changed as well In this research new acceptance models will be developed combining these two user types to understand better the acceptance procedure All this is for the benefit of utilitarian users References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 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