CHAPTER 9 NATIONALISM AND NATION BUILDING

Report
NATION BUILDING
AND
NATIONIONALISM
America: Past and Present
Chapter 9
Expansion and Migration
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American perspective shifts from Europe
to West after 1815
Land perceived as rich, unsettled
Continent held in part by the English,
Spanish, and Indians
Extending the Boundaries
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John Quincy Adams--expansionist
secretary of state from 1816 to 1824
Adams-Onis Treaty secures all Florida,
U.S. boundary to Pacific
Settled "West" still mostly east of
Mississippi River
North America, 1819
Settlement to the Mississippi:
Indian Removal
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Indian Removal policy begins after 1815
Some Indians retain tribal homelands
Some Southern states claim jurisdiction
over the Indians in their borders
Former Indian land sold to speculators
Settlement to the Mississippi:
Settlers Move In
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By 1840 over 1/3 of U.S. population lives
west of the Appalachians
Speculators sell land parcels to settlers on
credit
Settlers immediately enter commercial
farming to pay off debt
Access to markets gained by network of
market towns, regional centers
The People and Culture of the
Frontier
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West settled to escape overpopulation,
rising land prices, worn-out soil
Settlers bring culture with them
Cooperation, strong community necessary
for survival
Land values rise rapidly in a few years
Price rise encourages rootlessness as
many sell out and move on
A Revolution in
Transportation
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Primitive land transportation in the East
was offset by shipping via the coastal
waterways
After the War of 1812 political leaders
recognized the need the need to improve
the country’s transportation network
Roads and Steamboats
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National Road from Cumberland,
Maryland to Wheeling, Virginia
Private turnpikes built by entrepreneurs
Roads useful but unprofitable
Roads and Steamboats (2)
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Network of rivers encourage economic
development
Flatboats transport down river early
Steamboats transport upriver after 1811
Upriver capabilities reduce costs
Steamboat traffic stimulates Congress to
establish safety regulations
The Canal Boom
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Erie Canal first transportation link between
East and West, 1825
Canal cuts East-West transportation costs
dramatically
Canal stimulates commercial growth of
New York City
Emergence of a Market Economy
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Canals cut shipping expenses for western
farmers and eastern manufacturers
Steamboats on the rivers also reduced
shipping costs and stimulated commercial
agriculture
The Beginning of Commercial
Agriculture
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Lower transportation costs mean greater
income for the farmer
Sale to distant markets involves farmers in
a complex system of credit
Market stimulates specialization
 Ohio
Valley produces wheat
 Lower South produces cotton
Commerce and Banking
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Commercial farming stimulates new
system of marketing
Farmers borrow on future crops
Use of credit stimulates banking
State banks increase after 1812
1816--Second Bank of the United States
created to check state banks
Bank’s easy credit sparks Panic of 1819
Early Industrialism
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Rise in manufacturing after 1812
Traditional methods but innovative
financing through “putting out” system
 “putting-out”--merchants
deliver raw materials
for farm families, artisans to process
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Textile industry leads development of
factory system
The Politics of Nation
Building After the War of 1812
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Politics a one-party system after 1812
Interest groups no longer take differences
into the political arena
Federal executive, legislature largely
irrelevant to domestic economy
Supreme Court exerts influence on
economy by deciding crucial cases
The Republicans in Power
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Republicans begin adopting Federalist
measures after War of 1812
 1815:
establish high tariffs
 1816: charter a national bank
 federal aid for internal improvements
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Federal efforts to stimulate economy falter
 Madison,
Monroe see Constitutional conflicts
 Efforts provoke sectional conflict
Monroe as President
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James Monroe elected President in 1816,
reelected in 1820
Monroe seeks national harmony
Takes no action in Panic of 1819, believes
president above such matters
Provides no leadership controversy over
Missouri
The Missouri Compromise:
The Issues
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1817--Missouri applies for statehood as
slave state
Northerners believe South overrepresented in House of Representatives
House rejects unless slavery abolished
South wishes to preserve balance between
slave states and free states
The Missouri Compromise:
The Solution
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Missouri admitted as slave state
Maine admitted as free state
Slavery banned elsewhere in Louisiana
Purchase above the latitude of 36E30'
Missouri controversy exposed deep rift
between North and South
The Missouri Compromise,
1820-1821
Postwar Nationalism and the
Supreme Court
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John Marshall chief justice 1801-1835
Marshall uses position to encourage
national growth
Believes Constitution exists to protect the
industrious
Protects individual property rights against
government interference
Marshall uses court decisions to limit
powers of the states
Nationalism in Foreign Policy:
The Monroe Doctrine
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When Latin American nations revolt, U.S.
supports new republics
European ruling classes fear rebellion
might prove contagious
France was encouraged to squelch
Spain's rebellious colonies
Great Britain asks U.S. to cooperate
against French in Latin America
Nationalism in Foreign Policy:
Monroe Doctrine (2)
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Monroe persuaded that U.S. alone must
protect Latin American independence
1823--Monroe Doctrine warns European
nations out of the Western Hemisphere
Doctrine also promises U.S. will not
interfere in European affairs
Refocuses U.S. from worldwide struggles
against tyranny to national development
The Troubled Presidency of
John Quincey Adams
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James Monroe supports John Quincy
Adams to succeed him
Adams intelligent, keen interest in progress,
loyal to nation, not sectional
Nearly loses election of 1824
A "gentleman" in an age of rising democracy
Term of office fails because of fiercely
contending sectional interests
The End of the “Era of Good
Feelings”
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There were sharp divisions over how to
achieve national greatness
Elite nonpartisan statesmanship would
soon give way to a more contentious
democratic process

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