Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 9

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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik
Module 9: Classical Conditioning
Module 9
Classical Conditioning
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik
Module 9: Classical Conditioning
THREE KINDS OF LEARNING
Classical conditioning
• Stimulus substitution
• Pavlov/dogs
Operant conditioning
• Consequences
• Thorndike/cats
• Skinner/rats
Cognitive learning
• Predictable relationships
• Bandura/Bobo doll
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik
Module 9: Classical Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
• Classical conditioning
– stimulus substitution/conditioned reflex
– Involuntary/elicited response
– The goal is to create a new response to a neutral
stimulus
– Ex. The sight of a needle can trigger fear
– Helps predict what may happen (survival)
• Ivan Pavlov (salivating dogs)
– Pavlov rang a bell before putting food in a dogs
mouth.
– after numerous trials of pairing the food and bell,
the dog salivated to the sound of the bell
– This becomes a conditioned reflex
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik
Module 9: Classical Conditioning
Theories of classical conditioning
Stimulus substitution
– a neural bond or association forms in the brain
between the neutral stimulus (bell) and
unconditioned stimulus (food)
– The bell substitutes for food
Contiguity theory
• two stimuli (neutral stimulus and unconditional
stimulus) are paired close together in time
(contiguous)
• The sight of food elicits salivation
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik
Module 9: Classical Conditioning
Theories of classical conditioning (cont.)
Cognitive perspective
• an organism learns a predictable relationship
between two stimuli such that the occurrence
of one stimulus (neutral stimulus) predicts the
occurrence of another (unconditioned stimulus)
– The bell predicts the food
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik
Module 9: Classical Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
NS
UCS
CS
UCR
CR
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik
Module 9: Classical Conditioning
PROCEDURE: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
• Step 1: Choosing stimulus and response
– Neutral stimulus
• some stimulus that causes a sensory
response, such as being seen, heard, or
smelled, but does not produce the reflex being
tested
– Unconditioned stimulus
• USC, some stimulus that triggers or elicits a
physiological reflex, such as salivation or eye
blink
– Unconditioned response
• UCR, unlearned, innate, involuntary
physiological reflex that is elicited by the
unconditioned stimulus
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik
Module 9: Classical Conditioning
PROCEDURE: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (CONT.)
• Step 2: Establishing classical conditioning
– Neutral stimulus
• trial, pair neutral stimulus (bell) with the
unconditioned stimulus (food)
• neutral stimulus presented first then short time
later the unconditioned stimulus
– Unconditioned stimulus
• seconds after the tone begins, you present the
UCS
– Unconditioned response
• UCS (food) elicits the UCR (salivation)
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik
Module 9: Classical Conditioning
PROCEDURE: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (CONT.)
• Step 3: Testing for conditioning
– Conditioned stimulus
• CS, is a formerly neutral stimulus that has
acquired the ability to elicit a response that
was previously elicited by the unconditioned
stimulus
– Conditioned response
• CR, elicited by the conditioned stimulus, is
similar to, but not identical in size or amount to,
the UCS
• CR, less salivation than the UCR
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik
Module 9: Classical Conditioning
OTHER CONDITIONING CONCEPTS
• Generalization
– tendency for a stimulus that is similar to the
original CS to elicit a response that is similar to
the CR
– Shampoo and aftershave
• Discrimination
– occurs during classical conditioning when an
organism learns to make a particular response to
some stimuli but not to others
– Nail polish and aftershave
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik
Module 9: Classical Conditioning
OTHER CONDITIONING CONCEPTS (CONT.)
•
Extinction
– a CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS and, as a
result, the CS tends to no longer elicit the CR
– Boyfriend’s aftershave
•
Spontaneous recovery
– tendency for the CR to reappear after being extinguished
even though there have been no further conditioning trials
•
Systematic Desensitization
– Change CS back to NS
– Effective tx for nausea, fear of blood, public speaking
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik
Module 9: Classical Conditioning
ADAPTIVE VALUES & USES
• Adaptive value
– certain abilities or genetic traits that have evolved
to increase survival, such as finding food,
acquiring mates, and avoiding pain and injury
– Bluejays avoid Monarchs
• Taste aversion learning
– associating a particular sensory cue (smell,
tastes, sound, or sight) with getting sick and
thereafter avoiding that particular unpleasant or
dangerous sensory cue in the future
– Can develop after one exposure and last 4-5
years
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik
Module 9: Classical Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
NS
Bell
Aftershave
UCS
UCR
Loud noise, chemo, food, dental
procedure, needle injection
Tapping
arm
Salivation
Nausea
Anxiety
Sight of
needle
Pain
Fear
Dish soap
Rat/rabbit/
dog
Eye blink
CS
Noise of squeaky
wheelbarrow,
aftershave
CR
Salivating to the sound
of a bell or wheelbarrow,
fear/fainting/nausea
Startle
Cry

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