Chapter 9: Water & Phytochemicals Define: • • • beta-carotene—phytochemicals used by the body to make vitamin A. cruciferous vegetables—all vegetables from the cabbage family. dehydrated—lack of water in the body; signs include dark-colored urine, dry lips and skin, and constipation. • • hydration—receiving enough water to meet all the body’s needs. phytochemicals—naturally occurring chemical compounds in plant-based foods. Answer the following questions. • • What does water have in common with carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals? They are all nutrients. How much of a mature body is water? • About 55 to 75 percent. 3. Describe the ways that the body makes use of water. • Participates in chemical reactions; transports minerals, vitamins, glucose, and other substances; cushions and moisturizes joints, tissues, and organs; helps filter out pollutants and toxins, and get rid of waste products; regulates body temperature; assists breathing; contributes to overall wellbeing. 4. How does water exit the body? • Through sweat, breathing, urine, and feces 5. How much water do you lose every day? • About 2—3 quarts. 6. What is the condition of a properly hydrated body? • It has enough water to meet all the body’s needs. 7. How can you estimate the daily amount of water you need to consume? • Divide your weight in half to get ounces of water; then divide by 8 to convert that result to cups. 8. What are some signs of dehydration? • • • • • • • Thirst Dark-colored urine Dry lips and skin Constipation Headaches Dizziness Nausea • Light-headedness • Muscles fatigue. • • • • Extreme dehydration symptoms: Seizures Brain damage Death. 9. Should you wait until you’re thirsty to drink? Explain. • No; by that time you have already lost a significant amount of water. 10. How much of the fluids you drink should be plain water? • At least half. 11. What effect do coffee, tea, and cola drinks have on water in your body? • The caffeine in these drinks promotes water loss by increasing the flow of urine. 12. Give tips to increase water intake. • • Measure the amount in the glass you normally drink to determine the number of glasses you need to get your daily quota. Estimate the amount by county gulps which are hearty swallows. Usually = 1 oz of water. • Eat more fruits and vegetables because they have a higher percentage of water than other foods. • Drink beverages without caffeine because they count toward your water requirement. • If you haven’t been drinking enough water, increase the amount gradually. • Make a habit of drinking at least 8 ounces of water when you get up in the morning, when you go to bed, and before each meal. That alone supplies five cups of water. • Carry a sports bottle filled with water. If you feel like having a beverage, reach for the sports bottle instead of a soft drink. Refill the bottle with water as needed and add a little fresh lemon if you like. • Take a water break instead of a soft drink or coffee break. • Drink water before, during and after you participate in physical activities such as mowing the grass, shoveling snow, and roller blading. 13. What are phytochemicals? • Naturally occurring chemical compounds that are in plant-based foods and appear to have many positive impacts on health. 14. Why are phytochemicals not currently classified as nutrients? • They are not considered essential for life. 15. What are some possible benefits of phytochemicals? • • • • • Act as antioxidants. Enhance immunity. Keep cancer cells from forming and also from multiplying. Influence the body’s production of cholesterol. Protect the body against such diseases as cancer, diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and blindness caused by aging. 16. How do you explain why many green vegetables have beta-carotene even though this phytochemical’s color is basically orange? • Chlorophyll in green plants masks the orange. 17. What color do you associate with lycopene and why? • Shades of red, including pink, because tomatoes and tomato products are good sources; also pink grapefruit, guava, and watermelon. 18. What phytochemicals might you get by eating blueberries, soybeans, onions, and red grapes? • • • • Flavonoids: blueberries have anthocyanins. Soybeans have isoflavones. Onions have querctin. Red grapes have resveratrol. 19. What foods are good sources of indoles? • Cruciferous vegetables: cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale, Swiss chard, and bok choy. 20. Relate this statement to phytochemicals: “Eat a variety of foods to stay healthy.” • Phytochemicals are in many fruits and vegetables, whole-grain products, dry beans, peas, lentils, and soy products, so eating foods from all these groups will not only give you a varied diet but will also supply the phytochemicals that appear to promote good health.