Chapter 9: Water & Phytochemicals

Chapter 9: Water &
beta-carotene—phytochemicals used by
the body to make vitamin A.
cruciferous vegetables—all vegetables
from the cabbage family.
dehydrated—lack of water in the body;
signs include dark-colored urine, dry lips
and skin, and constipation.
hydration—receiving enough water to
meet all the body’s needs.
phytochemicals—naturally occurring
chemical compounds in plant-based
Answer the following questions.
What does water have in common with
carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins,
and minerals?
They are all nutrients.
How much of a mature body is
About 55 to 75 percent.
3. Describe the ways that the body
makes use of water.
Participates in chemical reactions;
transports minerals, vitamins, glucose,
and other substances; cushions and
moisturizes joints, tissues, and organs;
helps filter out pollutants and toxins, and
get rid of waste products; regulates body
temperature; assists breathing;
contributes to overall wellbeing.
4. How does water exit the body?
Through sweat, breathing, urine, and
5. How much water do you lose
every day?
About 2—3 quarts.
6. What is the condition of a
properly hydrated body?
It has enough water to meet all the
body’s needs.
7. How can you estimate the daily
amount of water you need to consume?
• Divide your weight in half to get ounces of
water; then divide by 8 to convert that
result to cups.
8. What are some signs of
Dark-colored urine
Dry lips and skin
• Light-headedness
• Muscles fatigue.
Extreme dehydration symptoms:
Brain damage
9. Should you wait until you’re
thirsty to drink? Explain.
No; by that time you have already lost a
significant amount of water.
10. How much of the fluids you
drink should be plain water?
At least half.
11. What effect do coffee, tea, and
cola drinks have on water in your
The caffeine in these drinks promotes
water loss by increasing the flow of urine.
12. Give tips to increase water
Measure the amount in the glass you
normally drink to determine the number
of glasses you need to get your daily
Estimate the amount by county gulps
which are hearty swallows. Usually = 1
oz of water.
• Eat more fruits and vegetables because
they have a higher percentage of water
than other foods.
• Drink beverages without caffeine because
they count toward your water requirement.
• If you haven’t been drinking enough water,
increase the amount gradually.
• Make a habit of drinking at least 8 ounces of
water when you get up in the morning, when you
go to bed, and before each meal. That alone
supplies five cups of water.
• Carry a sports bottle filled with water. If you feel
like having a beverage, reach for the sports
bottle instead of a soft drink. Refill the bottle
with water as needed and add a little fresh
lemon if you like.
• Take a water break instead of a soft drink
or coffee break.
• Drink water before, during and after you
participate in physical activities such as
mowing the grass, shoveling snow, and
roller blading.
13. What are phytochemicals?
Naturally occurring chemical compounds
that are in plant-based foods and appear
to have many positive impacts on health.
14. Why are phytochemicals not
currently classified as nutrients?
They are not considered essential for life.
15. What are some possible
benefits of phytochemicals?
Act as antioxidants.
Enhance immunity.
Keep cancer cells from forming and also from
Influence the body’s production of cholesterol.
Protect the body against such diseases as
cancer, diabetes, heart disease, high blood
pressure, and blindness caused by aging.
16. How do you explain why many green
vegetables have beta-carotene even though this
phytochemical’s color is basically orange?
Chlorophyll in green plants masks the
17. What color do you associate
with lycopene and why?
Shades of red, including pink, because
tomatoes and tomato products are good
sources; also pink grapefruit, guava, and
18. What phytochemicals might you get
by eating blueberries, soybeans,
onions, and red grapes?
Flavonoids: blueberries have
Soybeans have isoflavones.
Onions have querctin.
Red grapes have resveratrol.
19. What foods are good sources
of indoles?
Cruciferous vegetables: cabbage,
broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower,
kale, Swiss chard, and bok choy.
20. Relate this statement to
phytochemicals: “Eat a variety of foods
to stay healthy.”
Phytochemicals are in many fruits and
vegetables, whole-grain products, dry
beans, peas, lentils, and soy products,
so eating foods from all these groups will
not only give you a varied diet but will
also supply the phytochemicals that
appear to promote good health.

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