Formative Assessment - Granite State College

Report
Introduction to Reflective Analysis of
Student Work
aka- RASW’s
aka-formative assessment
Paula Lombardi, M.Ed.
Christine Tate M.Ed.
Granite State College
School of Education
August 2013
Dylan Wiliam, Learning forum L7 at the North of England Education Conference, January 2010: York, UK
www.dylanwiliam.net
REFLECTIVE ANALYSIS
“Sivasailam Thiagarjan (Thiagi),…stated that [people] only
learn when they reflect on experience. …reflective learning
is the most powerful learning system, because it takes into
consideration emotions, interactions, thoughts, and
behaviors generated by the other learning systems.
Reflective learning involves:
Mentally recreating…
Analyzing choices…
Intellectually experimenting with strategies…
Meta-cognitively monitoring and cultivating one’s own
thinking…
…constructing knowledge…”
Millen, E.M., Greenleaf, R.K., Wells-Papanek, D., Orvis, S. L. (2007). Engaging today’s students, grades 5-12 edition.
Newfield, ME: Greenleaf & Papanek Publications. (pg. 61)
You will be required to practice formative assessment throughout your
program of study at Granite State College in the following settings:
1:1, small group, and whole class
Depending on your level of knowledge, you should refer to the Chapter
“Assessing Students for Instruction” in Mercer and Mercer, Teaching Students
with Learning Difficulties. Read or if you have already done so, review the
section/ “Individualized programming - A continuous Process of Assessment
and Teaching” to prepare for you formative assessment requirement.
The formative assessment process is recommended for special education
(clinical teaching) teachers as well as for classroom teachers addressing
standard based outcomes.
GSC LESSON PLAN FORMAT
For each lesson plan you will be required discuss and determine how you
will evaluate the lesson objectives and student outcomes. It is expected
that you will include formative assessment in your lesson plans.
This is a segment from the GSC lesson Plan Form.
Note that the formative assessment process in the individual student (RASWs) and the
whole class lesson plan, follow the same basic principles. Similar to other teacher planning
tasks, RASW is an ongoing and cyclical process, planning before, during and after
instruction.
Reflective Analysis Of Student
Work (RASW)
• The purpose of the RASW is to help you form
a “habit of mind” where you are reflecting
upon WHY a student is struggling with a task.
You are trying to determine what is making
the task difficult for the student. You then try
to address the issues in order to help the
student to make progress. You are reflecting
on your impact on the student- are they
learning? And if not, why?
Steps to RASW
1. Focused learning target and formative
evidence/ data
2. Reflective Analysis
3. Professional Learning Networks
4. Strategy/ next step
• In your School of Education methods courses
you will record your reflective analysis of
student work on specific worksheet and/or eform.
”RASWs”
• The next slides address the information that
you will collect on these forms
Step 1. Focused Learning Target and Formative Assessment
Evidence/Data
This step is broken into 3 sub steps. If you begin to get confused, remember, all you
are really doing is choosing a skill to work on, breaking it into its subs kills, and
providing data/evidence for the level the student is at or where the process is
breaking down for the student.
1a. Identify a measureable goal. This could be a goal from a student’s IEP, a Common
Core Standard, or from the Early Childhood Learning Guidelines.
Example: Geraldine will read 110 WCPM with 90% accuracy when reading a 3rd grade passage by
June 2014, as measured by the special educator, using running records.
1b. Identify a measurable learning target by breaking the goal into its subs kills. For
example, in order to read fluently, Geraldine needs to be able to decode words,
recognize sight words, have vocabulary skills, etc. Once you have broken the larger
goals into subs kills it will be easier for you to determine where the process is
breaking down for the student when you give them an assessment.
Example: By the end of three weeks, Geraldine will read words containing the digraphs sh, th, and
ch in connected texts with 90% accuracy. ( I bet you’re wondering HOW I came to this
learning target. I discovered that digraphs were her weakness when I gave her a fluency
assessment)
Step 1. Focused Learning Target and Formative
Assessment Evidence/Data cont…
1c. Articulate the results of the evidence gathered. This is where
you cite the information from the assessment that was given
to the student.
Example: Geraldine was administered an informal reading
inventory. She had difficulty reading ch, th, and sh. Her
accuracy for those digraphs was 40% and she demonstrated
poor phrasing.
Student work example: In writing a paragraph, Geraldine
misspelled 3 our of 3 words containing digraphs.
Reflective Analysis
2.
•
•
•
•
•
Based on the data, what questions arose about the
student’s learning needs. These MUST be in question
format.
Example: Does Geraldine hear the sounds correctly?
Is articulation an issue? Can she say them correctly in
conversation?
Could she read the digraphs correctly?
Does she misread the digraphs in all positions of
words?
Has this child received interventions in the past?
Reflective Collaboration
3. Who did you engage and what purposeful feedback was
provided to guide your next step? Who are your “go to
people”? A website? A colleague? Specialists in your school?
Did you review the student’s special education file? Previous
testing? Cumulative file?
• Example: Nurse
• Speech Therapist
• Reading Specialist/Classroom teacher
• Special Education file and cumulative file
• More importantly here… what did they say/suggest might be
the learning issue and ways to consider addressing it?
What is your strategy/next step?
4a Next Step? [Consider duration, frequency, intensity, before change.]
What behavioral strategy that is DIRECTLY LINKED to the formative
data/student performance will you use?
Example: Teach target digraphs in isolation with picture clues for one week,
(five one on one sessions for 15 minutes each)
4b. Assessment: How will you assess the skill?
Example: Give the student 10 sentences to read with 20 opportunities to read
target digraphs in words in the beginning, medial, and final positions in
words. Then, check to see if the student responds more or less
successfully to the position of the digraph in words. Also, not whether the
rate of success is different with any given digraph over others.
And the cycle begins all over again from the beginning. Can you increase the
learning target? Do you need to change it?
RASW Criteria:
© 2013
Cycle of Reflective Analysis of Student Work
Baseline
Evidence
Analysis of student work
PLC
Criteria 1:
Criteria 2:
Criteria 3:
Focused Learning
Target & Formative
Evidence / Data
Reflective
Analysis
PLN:
Professional
Learning
Networks
Engaged
A. Overarching CCSS, NH
standard, NAEYC, IEP
goal or other overarching
goal.
B. Learning Target:
C. Evidence gathered /
new data (formative based);
student work!
The data
prompted
what
questions
about the
student’s
learning
needs?
What
sources did
you engage
and what
feedback was
provided?
Formative assessment
Evidence
Criteria 4:
Strategy:
Next Step?
A. What strategy will
you use, that is
DIRECTLY
LINKED to the
formative data
collected?
B. What evidence
will you collect to
inform how the
student responded
to your selected
approach?
Iterative Template:
© 2013
Cycle of Reflective Analysis of Student Work
START
Iterative RASW formative cycle
represents a “habit of mind”
important for educators today
Interval
#1 a & b
Articulated
goal; Identify
learning need
Interval
#1c.
RASW #4a&b
BASELINE
data/evidence
Strategy
applied
+
Through
Reflective
Analysis(#2)
& PLN (#3)
Formative
Feedback
set up
Interval
#2
1c. Newly
Obtained
Formative
Feedback
Through
Reflective
Analysis
(#2) & PLN
(#3)
RASW #4a&b
Strategy
applied
+
Formative
Feedback
set up
Interval
#3
1c. Newly
Obtained
Formative
Feedback
Through
Reflective
Analysis
(#2) & PLN
(#3)
RASW #4a&b
Strategy
applied
+
Formative
Feedback
set up
Guiding QUESTIONS 8.14.13
Regarding the GSC Reflective Analysis of Student Work Rubric Criteria
1. Identifying a specific learning target
2. Reflective Analysis
3. Engage a PLN, Mentor, Expert
4. Link Strategy to learning need
Criteria #1:
Criteria #2:
Criteria #3:
Criteria #4:
The TC must select a measureable goal,
The TC must analyze the data from
Once the TC has completed their
This completes the cycle by linking
then select a sub-component of that
criteria #1 and develop QUESTIONS
reflective analysis, they confer with
the evidence available, the analysis
overarching goal. In order to obtain points
regarding the student's learning
others about their evidence, prospective of learning needs and the advice/input
for this criteria, the TC must list data that
needs, based on the evidence put
learning needs and possible best
of colleagues, experts and mentors -addresses this area, provide info that
forth. Questions must be about
practices to consider on behalf of their
to determine an approach/
clearly outlines a learning need and
potential requisites for learning,
student.
activity/strategy to use with the
develop a specific learning target, that is
not about teaching strategies.
student. How the IMPACT (measurable
measurable, to proceed with. Then,
student learning) of this choice will be
address current evidence referencing
assessed must also be addressed.
actual STUDENT WORK.
A. Have you asked questions
A. Have you presented the evidence to a
A. Have you listed a Measurable goal or it's about the student and his/her
mentor, colleague or other professional
equivalent?
learning that stem from the evidence for their input? What did they say?
provided in the criteria #1 column?
B. Have you noted available evidence/
data that provides sufficient input for
identifying a measurable learning target,
that aligns with the student's overall
learning goal?
C. Have you included recent, current
(some from the last week or two) available
evidence/data that can be used to support
analysis, inquiry, and the development of
an academic or behavioral learning target
specific enough to lead to a prospective
strategy to address the coming week's
instructional focus? Cite actual student
work/performance over the past week.
B. Do your questions speak to
learning issues clearly related to
the identified learning target in
column 1, row B to the left?
(Do not articulate instructional
strategies or overall student
learning styles here)
A. Is a direct result of the latest
evidence (column 1) linked to a
selection of instructional activities
for the student?
B. Have the tasks indicated for the
B. Have you sought out any research or student to undertake clearly linked to
on-line resources for input? What did
the goals, learning target, evidence
you learn?
gathered and input generated through
reflective analysis (columns 2 & 3)?
C. Is any progress / impact on
intended outcomes measureable?
C. Do your questions clearly speak
How will you know whether the
to learning issues related to the
C. Have you articulated key components approach you have selected has
current evidence collected in
of the discussion(s) held or information impact?
column 1, row C to the left?
gathered and summarized any
D. Will gathering evidence from this
(Do not articulate instructional
conclusions drawn?
instructional approach provide
strategies or overall student learning
adequate evidence for you to restyles here)
engage this cycle back in column 1,
.
Vertical Template:© 2013
Cycle of Reflective Analysis of Student Work
Criteria 1: Focused Learning Target & Formative Evidence / Data
A. Write the overarching goal you are addressing. B. Identify a measurable learning target within
the scope of the goal C. Articulate the: evidence gathered; any issues, patterns, concerns, the data suggests;
any other items of note.
A. Overarching goal
B. Learning Target:
C. Evidence gathered / new data (formative feedback gathered most recently):
Criteria 2:
Criteria 3:
Reflective Analysis
The data prompted what questions about the student’s learning needs?
Professional Learning Networks Engaged
What sources did you engage and what feedback was provided?
Criteria 4: Strategy:Next Step?
a. What academic/ behavioral strategy will you use, that is DIRECTLY LINKED to the formative
data/evidence collected, that is intended to impact learning outcomes?
b. What evidence will you collect to inform how the student responded to your selected approach?
.
Horizontal Template:© 2013
Cycle of Reflective Analysis of Student Work
Criteria 1: Focused Learning Target &
Formative Evidence / Data
A. Write the overarching goal you are addressing.
B. Identify a measurable learning target within
the scope of the goal
C. Articulate the:
•evidence gathered
•any issues, patterns, concerns, the data suggests
•any other items of note.
Criteria 2:
Reflective
Analysis
The data
prompted what
questions about
the student’s
learning needs?
Criteria 4:
Strategy:
Next Step?
Criteria 3:
Professional
Learning
Networks
Engaged
What sources did
you engage and
what feedback
was provided?
A. Overarching goal
What strategy will
you use, that is
DIRECTLY
LINKED to the
formative data
collected?
A.
B. Learning Target:
C. Evidence gathered / new data (formative based):
Learning Target Focused,
with Appropriate Data:
RATING:
B.
Rating:
Cycle leads to…
Rating:
Rating:
Rating:
Strategy Directly
& Clearly Linked
WHOLE CLASS/SMALL GROUP RASW PROCEDURE
POINTS OF INTEREST
(8.14.2013)
1b. Measureable Learning Target—subset of the overarching
area that is the focal point for the upcoming interval:
Write the specific learning target for the upcoming
lesson(s) that is related to your area of focus for this
week’s lessons. Typically this specific learning target is
pivotal for understanding and moving forward.
How was this target determined? (not via IEP)
What makes this learning target important to ALL
students overall understanding and success?
1c. Evidence gathered that led to the selection of the
learning target:
* Class or small group’s learning evidence that
supports the specific direction that instruction
needs to address
• Actual student work on items, prompts,
worksheets, etc. is very useful here
• Look for patterns across student work for common
errors or misunderstandings or pivotal components
to generate progress.
Citing actual student work is a vital part of this evidence.
4. What tasks and/or approach will
you use in upcoming lessons to
impact the identified learning
target—based on #1c ,#2, and #3?
Articulate:
* The primary learning need to
be targeted
•The strategy you will use to
address the specific learning
target
•Why this is a good choice.
4b. Articulate what new evidence
will be generated as feedback
regarding the impact of the
instructional choice on the
class/group learning and capacity
to move forward (or not) with
their essential understanding or
skills.
To learn more about formative assessment check out these resources
Online articles/blogs:
• The Best Value in Formative Assessment- Stephen Chappuis and Jan Chappuis
• Seven Keys to Effective Feedback- Grant Wiggins
• Research Says / Good Feedback Is Targeted, Specific, Timely, Bryan Goodwin
and Kirsten Miller
• How Do We Train Teachers in Formative Assessment? By Stephen Sawchuk
• Formative Assessment and Next-Generation Assessment Systems:
• Are We Losing an Opportunity? Paper prepared for the Council of Chief State
School Officers , September 2010
Books/papers:
• Embedded Formative Assessment, Wiliam, Dylan
• Formative Assessment Micro-Feedback Loops Using the Student-Centered
Accountability for Learning Process, Dr. Robert K. Greenleaf
• On Common Ground, The Power of Professional Learning Communities,
DuFour, DuFour, & Eaker (Eds.)
• Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment By
Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam
This webcast is a comprehensive presentation on the big picture
and details of Formative Assessment. It is 92 minutes, so find
yourself a quiet place and watch, listen, and take notes.
Sara Bryant, Professional Development Specialist
from Measured Progress, presents a webcast on:
Engaging Teachers in Formative Assessment to
Improve Learning.
Click on hyperlink to view video
http://www.mistreamnet.com/vidflv.php?who=mac042711
Rick Wormeli: Formative and Summative Assessment
Rick Wormeli, author of Fair Isn't Always Equal and Differentiation,
explains the difference between the two and how formative
assessment helps you offer better feedback to your students.
Click on hyperlink to view Rick’s video (4.48 minutes)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rJxFXjfB_B4
• Contact your Course Instructor
or
• Contact your Field Placement Faculty

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