Chapter 9 The Jefferson Era (1800

Report
What factor most influences people today
on who they vote for in an election?
A. The candidate’s political
party affiliation
B. The candidate’s opinion
on a specific issue
C. How likeable the
candidate is
D. The candidate’s
physical appearance
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Chapter 9 The Jefferson Era
(1800-1816)
Section 1 The Republicans Take
Power
In what ways did Thomas Jefferson
and the Republicans limit the powers
of the government?
The Election of 1800
• The Federalists and Republicans
fought a bitter election campaign
in 1800
• The Federalists supported Adams
again and Pinckney as VP
• Republicans nominated Thomas
Jefferson and Aaron Burr as VP
• Neither traveled around the
country to gather support
• Instead they wrote letters to make
their views public
• Federalists accused Jefferson of
being “godless”
• Republicans warned that the
Federalists favored the wealthy
and would bring back monarchy
In their letter writing campaign, Thomas
Jefferson’s supporters warned that reelecting President Adams would do what?
A. Raise taxes
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D. Give too much power
to individual states
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C. Weaken the military
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B.
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B. Bring back monarchy
Election Deadlock
• The election came out a tie
• Not between Adams and
Jefferson, but between
Jefferson and Burr (73 votes
each)
• The House of
Representatives had to
decide the election
• The Federalists in the
House of Reps saw a
chance to prevent the
election of Jefferson
• They supported Burr
The Election Results
• 35 ballots- The election
was tied
• Alexander Hamilton
urged one Federalist
not to vote for Burr
• Jefferson became
president and Burr VP
• To prevent this from
happening again,
Congress passed the
12th Amendment in
1803
• Separate ballots for
President and VP
Jefferson’s Inauguration
• Jefferson dressed in
everyday clothes
• Adams chose not to
attend
• Jefferson tried to bridge
the gap between
Federalists and
Republicans in his
speech
• “We are all Republicans,
we are all Federalists”
• But Jefferson was no
Federalist
Jefferson’s Ideas
• Jefferson believed a large
federal government
threatened liberty
• He believed states could
better protect freedom
• Jefferson wanted to
reduce the power and
size of the government
• These ideas were similar
to the French philosophy
known as laissez-faire
• “Let people do as they
choose”
Cutting Costs
• Jefferson and Albert Gallatin
(Secretary of Treasury)
reduced the national debt
• Scaled down military expenses
• All federal internal taxes,
including the whiskey tax, were
repealed
• Government funds would come
from customs duties (taxes
on imported goods)
• Also from sale of western lands
• Jefferson also limited the
number of federal government
workers to a few hundred
people
Judiciary Act of 1801
• Before Jefferson took office,
the Federalists passed this
Act
• Setup regional courts for the
US with 16 judges and other
judicial officials
• Adams appointed judges to
these positions and John
Marshall to Chief Justice
• Adams and Marshall worked
around the clock to appoint
these “midnight judges”
• When Jefferson became
president, a few of the
appointment papers
(commissions) had not yet
been delivered
• Jefferson told Secretary of
State, James Madison, not to
deliver them
• One commission was to go to
William Marbury
Marbury v. Madison
• Marbury took his case directly
to the Supreme Court
• Marshall said the Constitution
did not give the Court
jurisdiction to decide Marbury’s
case
• In Marbury v. Madison, three
principles of judicial review
were established
• 1. The Constitution is the
supreme law
• 2. The Constitution must be
followed when there is a
conflict between it and any
other law
• 3. The judicial branch must
uphold the Constitution and
nullify unconstitutional laws
Which of the following statements is a principle of
judicial review?
A. The Constitution is the
supreme law of the land.
D. The legislative branch is responsible
for upholding the Constitution.
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C. The Constitution should not
be followed when it conflicts
with any other law.
A.
B.
C.
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B
B. State law takes precedence
over federal law.
What Marbury v. Madison Did
• Marshall broadened
federal power at the
expense of the states
• 1819- McCulluch v.
Maryland- The Court held
that Congress is allowed to
do more than the
Constitution expressly
authorizes it to do
• 1824- Gibbins v. OgdenThe Court held that federal
law takes precedence over
state law in interstate
transportation
In what ways did Thomas Jefferson
and the Republicans limit the powers
of the government?
–They reduced military spending
and size, repealed all federal
internal taxes, and kept government
small.
Chapter 9 Section 1 Quiz
The election of 1800 was
decided by
A. the Senate.
B. popular vote.
C. the Electoral
College.
D. the House of
Representatives.
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Regional courts were set up for
the United States with the
A. Judiciary Act of
1801.
B. midnight judges.
C. Marbury v.
Madison case.
D. Marshall Supreme
Court.
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What case represented the first time the
Supreme Court reviewed and ruled on acts
of the other branches of government?
Jefferson v. Madison
Marshall v. Madison
Marbury v. Madison
Adams v. Jefferson
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Jefferson believed in reducing the power
and size of government, or a philosophy
called
A. laissez-faire.
25% 25% 25% 25%
B. judicial review.
C. federalism.
D. statism.
Which Secretary of State was
asked to serve as chief justice?
John Marshall
Abigail Adams
Thomas Jefferson
Aaron Burr
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