Sports nutrition - Healthy Hearts Nutrition, LLC

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THE DIETITIAN: LESLIE CLEM
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Registered & Licensed Dietitian
Master of Public Health
Certified in Adult Weight Management
Founder of Healthy Hearts Nutrition LLC
http://www.healthyheartsnutrition.com
CSSD-CERTIFIED SPECIALIST IN SPORTS
DIETETICS
http://www.scandpg.org/sports-nutrition/sports-nutrition-who-delivers/
SPORTS NUTRITION
Eating right allows your body to adapt to training, helps you recover after exercise and attain peak
performance.
Applies to the elite athlete and the active person, equally
Eating right will:
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Help you train longer and at a higher intensity
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Delay the onset of fatigue
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Promote recovery
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Help your body adapt to workouts
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Improve body composition and strength
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Enhance concentration
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Help maintain healthy immune function
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Reduce the chance of injury
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Reduce the risk of heat cramps and stomach aches
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Maintain blood glucose concentrations throughout exercise
BEFORE EXERCISE-PRE COMPETITION MEAL
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Your pre-training meal is as important as pre-competition meal
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Eat well the night before your competition.
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3-4 hours prior to start of game, match or meet
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Slightly smaller than a regular meal
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Medium serving of lean protein: Adequate protein before exercise may help
reduce post exercise soreness
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Big serving of starchy carbs
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Salty foods or added salt
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Plenty of caffeine-free fluids
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Low in fat and fiber to facilitate gastric emptying and minimize gastrointestinal
distress
TOP OFF FUEL
30-60 minutes prior to
competition, make
sure your fuel stores
are “topped off” by
consuming 30 grams
of carbohydrates +
fluids. Examples: 2
cups of sports drink
(Gatorade), 8-10
ounce juice box, piece
of fruit, granola bar, ½
bagel, fruit snacks.
NOT IDEAL SITUATION?
What if I don’t have 3-4 hours to eat before I compete?
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1-2 hours before: small snack & liquids
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2-3 hours before: small meal & liquids
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3-4 hours before: moderate sized meal & liquids
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Foods to Avoid: fried foods, high-fat meats, creamy sauces, soups, gravies,
creamy dressings, biscuits, spicy foods, entrée salads, cakes, pies, regular ice
cream, sugary cereals, soda, whole milk, & foods you’ve never tried before!
NUTRITION THROUGHOUT COMPETITION
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If your competition lasts longer than 1 hour, take in carbs & fluids during exercise
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Most athletes burn 30-60 grams of carbohydrates during an hour of hard exercise
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Too little fluid or too much carbohydrate can result in cramping and other
intestinal problems
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Pick carbohydrates that are easily absorbed (avoid foods with high fat and high
fiber)
SEVERAL COMPETITIONS OR RACES IN ONE DAY
Between events?
<1 hour: drink at least 8
ounces of fluid and have high
carbohydrate snack . Examples:
water, sports drink, bagels, graham
crackers, fig bars, saltines, grapes,
berries, apple slices, bananas, fruit
juice
>1 hour: drink at least 12
ounces of fluid and have
carbohydrate/protein snack.
Examples: ½ peanut butter & jelly
sandwich, bagel with cheese, pb &
crackers, trail mix, yogurt with cereal,
or sports bar
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EATING FOR RECOVERY
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Restore fluid & electrolytes (sodium & potassium) lost in sweat
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Replace energy in the muscle, by consuming carbohydrates within 30 minutes of
exercise
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Provide protein to aid in repair of damaged muscle tissue and to stimulate new
tissues.
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Eat within 15-60 minutes post workout
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Consume a full meal within 2 hours post exercise
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If you do not have an appetite following performance, chose liquid foods
(smoothies, milk, sports beverages)
PROTEIN
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Provides essential amino acids (building blocks) to your body’s cells
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Aids in the development of new tissues for growth and repair
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Helps make important enzymes, hormones and antibodies
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Keeps your body’s cells in fluid balance
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Transports important substances in the blood
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Provides small amounts of energy during exercise
PROTEIN
• More is not always better!
Many athletes consume too
much protein. Excess protein
can lead to dehydration and
weaken your bones. It may
also cause kidney and liver
damage.
• Protein contributes to less
than 10% of the fuel used
during exercise, unless your
exercise is longer than 2-3
hours or your carbohydrate
stores are inadequate.
Estimated Protein Needs
Maintain
Muscle Mass
Gain Muscle
Mass
Moderate
Workouts
Intense
Workouts
Weight
Low end (.5
grams/per
pound)
High end (1.0
grams/per
pound)
120 pounds
60 grams
120 grams
240 pounds
120 grams
240 grams
VEGETARIAN ATHLETES
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Eat a variety of plant-based protein sources to meet your daily protein and amino
acid needs: legumes, tofu, texturized vegetable and soy protein, quinoa, nuts and
seeds
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Include plant-based iron-rich foods to facilitate oxygen transport in the body and
promote optimal respiratory function throughout exercise: legumes, nuts, seeds,
whole and enriched grains, dark green leafy vegetables, dried fruit
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Consume foods high in Vitamin C to increase iron absorption
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Select foods high in calcium and vitamin D to build strong bones and prevent
stress fractures: dairy products, green leafy veggies, fortified tofu, fortified soy
milk and fruit juices, legumes, nuts
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If you’re vegan, chose Vitamin B12 fortified foods or take a b12 supplement daily
MINIMIZE DEHYDRATION
Dehydration: water deficit in excess of 2-3% body mass
Be alert for conditions that increase your fluid loss through sweat:
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Air Temperature: The higher the temperature, the greater your sweat losses
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Intensity: The harder you work out, the more you perspire
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Body Size and Gender: Larger people sweat more. Men generally sweat more
than women
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Duration: The longer the workout, the more fluid loss
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Fitness. Well-trained athletes perspire more than less fit people. Why? Athletes
cool their bodies through sweat more efficiently than most people because their
bodies are used to the extra stress. Thus, fluid needs are higher for highly trained
athletes than for less fit individuals
HYDRATION
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Effects of dehydration: early fatigue, cardiovascular stress, increase risk of heat
illness, decreased performance, impaired mental performance, muscle cramps
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For a short workout (<60 minutes ), low to moderate intensity activity, water is a
good choice to drink before, during, and after exercise
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Sports drinks are good options for moderate to high intensity activity lasting
longer than 60 minutes
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If you experience high sodium losses during exercise, eat salty foods for a precompetition meal or add salt to sports drinks consumed during exercise
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Replace fluid and sodium losses with watery foods that contain salt (soup,
vegetable juice)
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Replace fluid and potassium with fruits and vegetables
SWEAT LOSS
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Sweat rates are influenced by genetics, gender, age, environmental temperature,
exercise intensity, fitness and acclimatization
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Consuming fluids replaces sweat loss and aids cooling
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Prevent excessive fluid loss (>2% of body weight lost as fluid)
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Monitor urine color and volume
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Sodium helps your body retain fluid and stimulates thirst
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If your sweat is salty, consume sodium (sports drinks, or other sodium sources)
during exercise; eat salty foods before and after prolonged exercise (>2 hours)
SWEAT LOSS
a) Record nude body weight before exercise (lb/2.2 = kg)
b) Record nude body weight after exercise (lb/2.2 = kg)
c)
Record change in body weight (A – B)
d) Record drink volume consumed during exercise (oz x 30 = mL)
e) Record urine volume excreted before post exercise weighing (oz x 30 = mL)
f)
Determine sweat loss (C + D – E, oz x 30 = mL)
g)
Record exercise time, minutes or hours
h) Calculate sweat rate = F/G in mL/min or mL/hr
Rehydrate quickly after a session. Remember that you will continue to lose fluid during recovery
through urine and continued sweating. You need to drink 1.5 liters for every kilogram of
body weight lost.
(1 liter=33 ounces)
SWEAT LOSS EXAMPLE
http://nutritioncaremanual.org/calculators.cfm?calculator_type=Calc-SWEAT
ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE & ALCOHOL
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Acts as a diuretic by increasing urine volume and interfering with rehydration
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Long term alcohol use diminishes protein synthesis resulting in a decrease muscle
buildup
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Alcohol is a toxin that travels through your bloodstream, causing dehydration and
slowing your body’s ability to heal itself (depresses immune functioning)
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Alcohol can decrease the secretion of HGH (human growth hormone) while you sleep,
by as much as 70%
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Alcohol inhibits the absorption of nutrients (thiamin, VitaminB12, folic acid, and zinc)
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Suppresses fat use as a fuel for exercise
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Athletes that drink at least once per week have an elevated risk of injury, compared to
non drinkers
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Impaired temperature regulation during exercise
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Adds calories and acts as an appetite stimulant
VITAMINS & MINERALS
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Individuals at risk for low vitamin/mineral intake are those who consume a low
energy diet for extended periods of time
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Vitamins: essential organic compounds that function as regulators for protein,
carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Necessary to transform the potential energy in
foods to chemical energy for work
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Minerals: inorganic elements that act as cofactors for enzymes that influence all
aspects of metabolism
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Calcium
IRON
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Iron is required for the formation of oxygen-carrying proteins (hemoglobin and
myoglobin), that supply oxygen to muscle cells
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Enhance iron consumption by consuming nonheme iron sources with vitamin C
sources. Consume heme iron with nonheme iron to enhance nonheme iron
absorption
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Increased risk for depleted iron stores if you are young, female, vegetarian or
participating in strenuous activities
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One of the most prevalent nutrient deficiencies
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Monitor iron status(complete blood count and serum ferritin)
VITAMIN D
Athletes in northern hemisphere or train indoors
Benefits of adequate Vitamin D:
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Promote immune function
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Reduce exercise related inflammation
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Required for calcium absorption, regulation of serum calcium and phosphorus
levels, and promotion of bone health
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IOM considers 4000 IU of Vitamin D per day as the upper limit of dietary
supplement intake considered to be safe for teens and adults
SUPPLEMENTS AND ERGOGENIC AIDS
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Food>Supplements
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Manufacturers are not required to prove a supplement is safe before it is sold, or even
that it works. The FDA can take action to remove or restrict the sale of a supplement only
after it has been on the market and been shown to be unsafe.
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An ergogenic aid is a substance that claims to generate or improve work or capacity to
exercise.
Fact or Fraud?
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Boasts that it is quick and easy
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Uses testimonials from "real users" to promote its benefits
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Claims it's right for everyone
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States it has been used for millions of years
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Belittles the medical or scientific community
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Has a secret formulation.
SUPPLEMENTS, RISKS
Use of vitamin and mineral supplements does not improve performance in individuals
consuming nutritionally adequate diets
Question about a supplements?
http://www.drugfreesport.com/rec/
Password: NCAA2
GAINING WEIGHT, BUILDING MUSCLE
Include extra 300-500
calories/day by adding
snacks and increasing
portion size
Consume a snack rich in
carbohydrate, with 1020 grams of protein
before and immediately
after strength sessions
Eat every 3-4 hours to
ensure optimal nutrient
availability
Examples of snacks to fuel
muscle growth:
• Flavored milk
• Nut butters with
crackers
• Cottage cheese
• Trail mix with dried fruit
• Meal replacement
shakes
• Greek yogurt
WEIGHT LOSS, MUSCLE PRESERVATION
Determine your weight loss goals
One pound=3500 calories
Decrease energy intake, but not enough that you cannot exercise adequately
Positive nitrogen balance (adequate protein intake)
Cardio + strength train
IMMUNITY
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Eat foods rich in antioxidants (colorful fruits & veggies) to combat oxidative stress
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Select lean protein (especially those that contain iron and zinc)
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Include foods with omega 3 fatty acids that possess anti-inflammatory properties
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Chose foods that contain probiotics to enhance gastrointestinal and immune
health
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Athletes need to acknowledge stress and the role it can play in performance and
immunity; Realistic, attainable goals
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Sleep: HGH (human growth hormone) is produced during sleep, which aids in
repair. If training is intense it may be beneficial for naps
CONCLUSION
Athletes, coaches, and
scientists have
recognized for decades
that training and
nutrition are highly
interrelated when it
comes to improving
performance
Nutrition can profoundly
influence the molecular
and cellular processes
that occur in the muscle
during exercise and
recovery
REFERENCES:
Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics. (n.d.). Supplements and Ergogenic Acids for Athletes. Retrieved February 28, 2012,
from Eatright.org: http://www.eatright.org/Public/content.aspx?id=7088
ACSM. (n.d.). Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation in Athletes. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from
http://www.acsm.org/docs/current-comments/vitaminandmineralsupplementsandexercise.pdf
American Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics. (n.d.). Eat Right for Sports and Performance. Retrieved February 18, 2012,
from Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics: http://www.eatright.org/Public/content.aspx?id=7056
American Dietetic Association. (n.d.). Hydrate Right. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Eat Right:
http://www.eatright.org/Public/content.aspx?id=7084
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http://www.princeton.edu/uhs/pdfs/NCAA%20Alcohol%20and%20Athletic%20Performance.pdf
Kundrat, S. (2003, November). Sports Nutrition. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from IDEA:
http://www.ideafit.com/fitness-library/sports-nutrition-0
Niland, P. (2005). Immunity and the Athlete. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Niland Nutrition:
http://www.nilandnutrition.com/Articles.html
Nutrition on the Move Inc. (2009). Competition Day Nutrition. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from RK Team Nutrition:
www.rkteamnutrition.net
RK Team Nutrition. (2008). Protein. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from RKTeamNutrition.net: rkteamnutrition.net
Rodriguez, N. R. (n.d.). Nutrition and Athletic Performance:Vitamins and Minerals. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from
Medscape Today: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/717046_8
SCAN. (2009). Eating Before Exercise. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from Nutrition Fact Sheet:
http://www.scandpg.org/local/resources/files/2009/SD-USA_Fact_Sheet_Eating_Before_Exercise_Apr09.pdf
SCAN. (2009). Eating During Exercise. Retrieved February 2012, from Nutrition Fact Sheets:
http://www.customfitnutrition.net/leap.html
SCAN. (2009). Exercise Hydration. Retrieved November 13, 2011, from SCAN: Fact Sheets:
http://www.scandpg.org/local/resources/files/2009/SD-USA_Fact_Sheet_Exercise_Hydration_Apr09.pdf
SCAN. (2009). Reversing Iron Depletion. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Nutrition Fact Sheets: Required for calcium
absorption, regulation of serum calcium and phosphorus levels, and promotion of bone health
SCAN. (2010). Vegetarian Eating for Athletes. Retrieved November 12, 2011, from SCAN: Nutrition Fact Sheets:
http://www.scandpg.org/local/resources/files/2010/SDUSA_Fact_Sheet_Vegetarian_Eating_for_Athletes_Jul_2010.pdf
SCAN. (2011). Foods to Promote Immune Function. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Nutrition Fact Sheets:
http://www.princeton.edu/uhs/pdfs/NCAA%20Alcohol%20and%20Athletic%20Performance.pdf
SCAN. (2011). The Sunny Side of Vitamin D. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Nutrition Fact Sheets: http://scandpg.s3.amazonaws.com/resources/DOCS/factsheets/SDUSA%20Fact%20Sheet_Jan%202011_Sunny%20Side%20of%20Vitamin%20D_(web).pdf
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University Health Center: http://www.uhs.uga.edu/aod/athletic-performance.html

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