Figure 9-1a

Report
POWERPOINT® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION
by LYNN CIALDELLA, MA, MBA, The University of Texas at Austin
UNIT 2
9
PART A
The Central Nervous
System
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH
DEE UNGLAUB SILVERTHORN
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
FOURTH EDITION
About this Chapter
 Emergent properties of neural networks
 Evolution of nervous system
 Anatomy of the central nervous system
 The spinal cord
 The brain
 Brain function
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Evolution of Nervous Systems
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Figure 9-1a
Evolution of Nervous Systems
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Figure 9-1b
Evolution of Nervous Systems
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Figure 9-1c
Evolution of Nervous Systems
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Figure 9-1d
Evolution of Nervous Systems
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Figure 9-1e
Evolution of Nervous Systems
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Figure 9-1f
The Embryonic Nervous System
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Figure 9-2a
The Embryonic Nervous System
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Figure 9-2b
The Embryonic Nervous System
The neural tube
specializes into the
seven major regions of
the nervous system
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Figure 9-3a
The Embryonic Nervous System
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Figure 9-3b
The Embryonic Nervous System
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Figure 9-3c
Anatomy: Gray and White Matter
 Gray matter
 Unmyelinated nerve cell bodies
 Dendrites
 Axon terminals
 White matter
 Myelinated axons
 Contains very few cell bodies
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Anatomy: Bone and Connective Tissue
 Brain is encased in bony skull or cranium
 Spinal cord runs through vertebral column
 Meninges lies between bone and tissues
 Dura mater
 Arachnoid membrane
 Pia mater
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Anatomy: Meningeal Layers
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Figure 9-4b
Anatomy Summary: Cerebrospinal Fluid
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Figure 9-5b
Anatomy Summary: Cerebrospinal Fluid
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Figure 9-5c
Anatomy: Blood-Brain Barrier
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Figure 9-6a
Anatomy: Blood-Brain Barrier
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Figure 9-6b
Neural Tissue: Metabolic Needs
 Oxygen
 Passes freely across blood-brain barrier
 Brain receives 15% of blood pumped by heart
 Glucose
 Brain responsible for about half of body’s glucose
consumption
 Membrane transporters move glucose from plasma
into the brain interstitial fluid
 Hypoglycemia leads to confusion, unconsciousness,
and death
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Spinal Cord: Overview
Central nervous system,
posterior view
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Figure 9-4a
Spinal Cord: Anatomy
Specialization in the spinal cord
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Figure 9-7a
Spinal Cord: Anatomy
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Figure 9-7b
Spinal Cord: Anatomy
Propriospinal tracts
remain within
the cord
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Figure 9-7c (1 of 2)
Spinal Cord: Anatomy
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Figure 9-7c (2 of 2)
Spinal Cord: Integrating Center
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Figure 9-8
Anatomy of the Brain
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Figure 9-9d
The Brain: The Brain Stem
 11 of 12 cranial nerves originate along brain stem
 Vagus nerve is a mixed nerve
 Many nuclei are associated with reticular formation
 Medulla
 Somatosensory and corticospinal tracts in white matter
 Pyramids
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The Brain: Cerebellum
Lateral view of brain
The cerebellum coordinates movement
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Figure 9-9b
The Brain: Diencephalon
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Figure 9-10
The Brain: Hypothalamus
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Mid-Sagittal View of Brain
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Figure 9-9c
Gray Matter of the Cerebrum
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Figure 9-11
The Brain: The Limbic System
 Emotion, memory, and learning
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Figure 9-13

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