The West Between the Wars

Report
The West Between the Wars
Chapter 17
Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security
The Treaty of Versailles created new
boundaries, states & occupied
territories; however many were
unhappy.
 The League of Nations was weak.
 France demanded reparations from
Germany; when unable to pay,
France occupied the Ruhr Valley.

The Dawes Plan:




Reduced reparations
Coordinated Germany’s payments
with ability to pay
Granted a $200 million loan (Am.
Investment)

Treaty of Locarno
Guaranteed Germany’s borders with
France and Belgium
 Germany joins League of Nations (1926)


Kellogg-Briand Pact
63 Nations
 “renounce war”
 No reinforcement

Causes of the Great Depression
# 3 in the Section Review
Great
Depression
The Great Depression
Causes:

1.
2.
3.
Slump in the economies of many nations
International financial crisis
U.S. Stock Market Crash
Responses:




Unemployed and homeless filled the streets.
Govt. interference in the economy
Renewed interest in Marxist doctrines
Worksheet questions

Answer for each country (include vocab)
How did the Great Depression affect the
country?
 What did the government do in order to help
boost the economy?
 What effect did these have on the country?
Were the changes a success? How so?

Germany



Germany experienced major inflation which
caused serious social problems.
A German democratic state was created known
as the Weimar Republic.
The country was not able to pull themselves out
of the Great Depression for a long time. The
Germans were severely affected by
unemployment during the depression and
caused the rise of extremist parties.
Great Britain


Declines in the production industries led to a rise of
unemployment.
The Labour Party failed to solve the economic
problems.



Fell from power in 1931
A new Conservative led Gov. brought Britain out of the
worst stages of the Depression by using traditional
policies of balanced budgets and protective tariffs.
Keynes- advocated deficit spending (going into debt).
France




France had a balanced economy
Leftist parties formed the Popular Front government.
Created the French New Deal which gave workers
the right to collective bargaining – the right of unions
to negotiate with employers over wages and hours
France pulled out of the depression rather quickly
due to a more balanced economy and the French
New Deal
United States




The U.S. production industry fell by half
Roosevelt wanted a policy of active government
intervention in the economy, that was called The
New Deal.
The New Deal created the U.S. welfare and
social security system, including pensions and
unemployment insurance.
Although the New Deal didn’t solve the
unemployment problem, eventually WW II
would because of the need for weapons and
supplies.
Section 2
RISE OF DICTATORS
The Political Spectrum
The Political Spectrum
Rise of Dictators
Totalitarian state – a government that
aims to control political, social,
intellectual, and cultural lives of
citizens.
 Wanted to conquer the minds and
hearts of their subjects

Propaganda
 Modern communication

Fascist Beliefs & Policies
Fascism - a political movement that
stresses extreme loyalty to the state
and its leader.
 Support for Fascists comes from
aristocrats, industrialists, veterans,
and the lower middle class.

Fascism similarities to Communism
1.
2.
3.

Ruled by dictator & one party
system
Both denied individual rights
State is supreme
Difference is that Fascists didn’t
want a classless society.
Strict laws
against those
criticizing the
regime
Made a deal
with the
Catholic
Church to
gain support
Secret police,
OVRA, had
unrestricted
authority
Methods
used by
Mussolini
Promoted the
main ideals
of Fascism
through
organizations
Outlawed all
other
political
parties
Controlled
mass media
Mussolini in Power
The perfect Italian – fit, disciplined,
war loving, held traditional values.
 Family is the pillar of the state
 Catholic Church state religion
 Still unable to truly control every
aspect


Large gap between ideals and practices
A New Era in the Soviet Union

Lenin abandoned war communism in favor
of his New Economic Policy (NEP).





allowed private ownership of small businesses
Sell produce openly
Heavy industry and banking gov. run
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(USSR)
Lenin dies 1924 –
no successor named
Politburo – the Communist Party’s main
policy making body.



Leon Trotsky
Commissar of War
Called for rapid
industrialization
Spread communism
abroad
( world-wide
revolution
Joseph Stalin




Party general secretary
Appointed officials (received
their support)
Remove Bolsheviks from
power
end NEP
Economic Costs

Stalin shifts from the NEP with his
Five-Year Plans.
Transform the USSR into an industrial
country
 Maximum production of military
equipment and capital goods

Social Costs

not much money spent on housing



creation of slums
Private farms were eliminated under
collectivization – a system in which private
farms were eliminated and the government
owned all of the land peasants worked on.
Strict laws limited movements
Political Costs

Strengthened hold over party.
Those who resisted were sent to labor
camps in Siberia.
 Old Bolsheviks removed or put to death


Promoted women’s rights
Divorce easier
 Women work

Stalin
Mussolini
Eastern Europe fall to Dictators
In Hungary & Poland, the new democratic
governments formed after WWI fall to
dictators.
 By 1935, Czechoslovakia is the only
democracy in eastern Europe.
 they see authoritarian rule as the only
way to prevent instability.

Spain
Civil war in Spain leads to a Fascist
dictatorship.
 Francisco Franco — a young general
who rose quickly as dictator of Spain.

 Supported


by Italy & Germany
The Soviet Union supported the Republican
government
Authoritarian more than totalitarian
The ancient Basque village of Guernica was destroyed on April 26,
1937 by a German air force more interested in practicing than in
any military aims.
Wave after wave of planes dropped heavy bombs as well as
incendiary devices on the defenseless town. Fighter pilots strafed
civilians attempting to escape.
Hundreds of Guernica citizens lost their lives during the raid. Up to
one-third of the town's 5,000 residents were killed.
T
H
E
N
This image shows the center of Guernica shortly after the
raid. Some three-quarters of all buildings in the town were
damaged with the center almost completely destroyed.
N
O
W
Guernica by Pablo
Picasso
Section 3
RISE OF HITLER AND NAZI
PARTY
Hitler’s Germany
Hitler wanted to create another
Roman Empire
 Create an Aryan race that would
dominate Europe
 Third Reich

Holy Roman Empire
 Germany empire after unification

Hitler’s Germany
Use variety to maintain a totalitarian
state
 Schutzstaffeln (SS) – police force
used to maintain order

Directed by Heinrich Himmler
 2 principles – terror and ideology
 Chief goal was to further the Aryan
race.


Economic policies


Put people back to work to reduce
unemployment
propaganda
press, radio, literature, painting and film
 Rallies (Nuremberg)
 Youth programs


Women’s roles
Traditional role of wife and mother of the
Aryan race
 Jobs reflected Nazi ideals for women

Anti-Semitic Policies
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Kristallnacht
“night of broken glass”, November 9,
1938
 Destruction against Jewish synagogues,
businesses, and people
 clean up everything from Kristallnacht
 Many encouraged to leave the country

Kristallnacht

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