Phonics Instruction

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PHONICS INSTRUCTION
HOW TO SUPPLEMENT FUNDATIONS
Julie Burns REED 745
What is Phonics?
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Phonics is instruction in the letter-sound relationships
that are used in reading and writing (Borgia,
2011).
The goal of phonics instruction is to help students
develop the alphabetic principle.
Students who understand the alphabetic principle
know that the sounds of spoken words match a
symbol (letter) that can be written to make words.
What is Explicit, Systematic Phonics?
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This would be our current program, Fundations.
The word explicit may refer to precise, fully
developed, clearly expressed instruction.
Sometimes the phrase is used to describe the
precise, fully developed, and clearly expressed
instructions provided to teachers in scripted phonics
programs.
These programs make it perfectly clear what
teachers are to say and do.
What is Explicit, Systematic Phonics? Cont.
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Systematic means orderly, planned, and
coordinated. In the context of phonics instruction,
systematic is used sometimes to refer to instructional
progression, sometimes to a set of activities and
materials, and sometimes to the schedule of
instruction (Villaume, 2003 ).
A substantial amount of research has attempted to
determine whether non scripted phonics instruction
or scripted phonics programs with explicit instruction
for teachers lead to greater student achievement.
The Results
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A long-standing and growing body of research
confirms that teacher expertise is a more significant
factor in student reading achievement than teaching
method (Villaume, 2003 ).
This research describes how the most effective
teachers recognize and address student confusion
by quickly providing additional clarifying examples
and how they notice and respond to a lack of
student engagement by changing the pace of the
lesson or modifying the activity.
How Do They Do It?
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They use supplementary lessons!
Supplementary lessons should include reading,
writing and play with words.
This will reinforce the skills being taught during
Fundations.
Incorporate skills being taught with Reader’s
Theater, spelling words, basal readers, leveled
readers, writing topics, poetry…ect.
What to Supplement?
Use Word Families
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There are 37 "dependable"
rimes in our language that make
up nearly 500 primary grade
words.
Any of these rime patterns can
be the focus of a lesson. Be sure
to select patterns and words
from shared reading and writing
materials that you are using.
Encourage Invented Spelling
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Students that have had more
time for writing in journals
and using their invented
spelling were significantly
better in their decoding and
comprehension skills than
those students only in a
traditional spelling program
(Stahl, 1992)
Try It!
This
activity
will focus
on the
long vowel
sound
patterns in
words.
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After choosing a spelling pattern for the vowel
sound of long o, look for a text that has words
with patterns like —one and -oa. Silverstein's
(1974) poem, "Sarah Cynthia Sylvia Stout
Would Not Take the Garbage Out," has several
words with these patterns: bones, cones, oatmeal,
toast, and roasts.
Try It! Cont.
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Put a pattern like —ow at the top of a sheet of chart paper
and ask students to share words they can think of that fit this
pattern and have the long o sound.
Do the same for several other long o patterns. Have students
write the words on these charts under the appropriate pattern.
Challenge them to look for other words in their reading and
environment that fit one of these patterns.
Do this for several days so that students begin to internalize
the pattern for a particular vowel sound.
Display the charts next to your other Word Wall words as
constant reminders of their work and of the relationship
between letter combinations and sounds.
Long –O Word Wall
-ow
-oa
-one
row
tow
low
know
toast
road
oats
boat
bone
tone
cone
lone
How Can We Do It?
Minute Reflection:
How can we incorporate more activities like we just
discussed as a supplement to Fundations?
References
Borgia, L., & Owles, C. (2011). Terrific Teaching Tips. Illinois Reading Council Journal, 39(3), 50-54.
Beverly, B. L., Giles, R. M., & Buck, K. L. (2009). FIRST-GRADE READING GAINS FOLLOWING ENRICHMENT:
PHONICS PLUS DECODABLE TEXTS COMPARED TO AUTHENTIC LITERATURE READ ALOUD. Reading
Improvement, 46(4), 191-205.
Heide, S. (2005). Meaningful Phonics Instruction: Engaging Students Through Poetry and Word Study Folders.
Illinois Reading Council Journal, 33(4), 32-36.
McIntyre E, Petrosko J, Newsome F, et al. Supplemental Instruction in Early Reading: Does It Matter for Struggling
Readers?. Journal of Educational Research [serial online]. November 2005;99(2):99-107.
Mesmer, H. E., & Griffith, P. L. (2005). Everybody's selling it--But just what is explicit, systematic phonics
instruction?. Reading Teacher, 59(4), 366-376.
Shefelbine, J. (1998). Strategic Phonics. Instructor-Intermediate, 108(2), 102.
Strickland discusses proper role of phonics. (2011). Reading Today, 28(4), 6.
Villaume, S., & Brabham, E. (2003). Phonics instruction:Beyond the debate. Reading Teacher, 56(5), 478.
Wilson, G., Martens, P., Arya, P., & Altwerger, B. (2004). Readers, Instruction, and the NRP. Phi Delta Kappan,
86(3), 242-246

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