SQLite Forensics - EasyMetaData.com

Report
SQLite Forensics
David Dym
G-C Partners
www.encase.com/ceic
SQLite Forensics
Introduction
•
Who am I?
•
You may recognize me from
•
Contributing author for the Computer Forensics InfoSec Pro Guide by
David Cowen.
•
Contributing author for Hacking Exposed Computer Forensics,
Second Edition
•
Tools and scripts
•
My blog!
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SQLite Forensics
Objectives
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SQLite introduction and basics
•
Help with date-time analysis
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Stoke your curiosity
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Scripting hands on
•
Q&A
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SQLite Forensics
Who is using SQLite?
 Apple
 Google
 Mozilla
 Dropbox
 Adobe
 Skype
 G-C Partners
 and more…
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SQLite Forensics
Where SQLite is used
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Mobile
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iOS
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Android
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Windows Mobile Apps
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Web Browsers
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Mac OSX+
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And many more!
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SQLite Forensics
Why SQLite?
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Performance
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Simplified Application Development
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Cross-Platform and programming language agnostic
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Atomic transactions
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Supports familiar SQL92 features
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Single file
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Public domain
?
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SQLite Forensics
What is SQLite
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Authored by Dwayne ‘Richard’ Hipp
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Initial release in 2000
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Characteristics
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Database is a cross-platform
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No setup, administration or client-server
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Light footprint
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Handles large datasets
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Multiple readers
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Max database size up to 140 Terabytes
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Dynamically typed data types
Write
SQLite
Database
Read
Read
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SQLite Forensics
Header
Identifying a SQLite 3 Databases
SQLite format – Offset 0, Size 16 bytes
Magic Number
 1.2.1 Magic Header String - Every valid SQLite database file
begins with the following 16 bytes (in hex): 53 51 4c 69 74 65 20
66 6f 72 6d 61 74 20 33 00. This byte sequence corresponds to
the UTF-8 string "SQLite format 3" including the null terminator
character at the end.
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SQLite Forensics
Header
Pages
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Every SQLite database consists of pages
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Page size is a factor of 2 and can be between 512 and 65536
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Default page size is usually 1024 bytes
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Default size begins at offset 16 and is a 2 byte integer
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Page size can be changed after creation
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SQLite Forensics
DataTypes
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SQLite Forensics
What you may find in SQLite databases
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Your typical “Text” and Date-Time information -
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Contacts, Messages, URL’s and more…
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Geo Coordinates (GPS) Location data
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Settings, preferences, etc…
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Entire Files!
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We call them BLOBS in database
terminology
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SQLite Forensics
What you may find in SQLite databases
A BLOB field could contain
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Icons
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Images
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Audio
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Documents
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Plists!
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Any binary data
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SQLite Forensics
BLOB fields
BLOB - storing binary plist in “properties” field of an iOS sms
database
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SQLite Forensics
WAL – Write Ahead Log
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Introduced in version 3.7
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Not enabled by default
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Improves concurrency – each writer has “end mark” tracked
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Transactions append to the end of the WAL
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Checkpoint causes WAL data to be written back to the database
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Checkpoint occurs when the WAL reaches page size threshold
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Header
Offset
18
19
Size
1
1
Description
File format write version. 1 for legacy; 2 for WAL.
File format read version. 1 for legacy; 2 for WAL.
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SQLite Forensics
Datetimes Handling
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SQLite Forensics
Datetime Formats
Unixtime ePoch
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Begins 1 January 1970
Mac ePoch
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Begins 2001 rather than 1970. Thanks Steve
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Increment typically in Seconds
Chrome (Webkit) ePoch
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Begins 1 January1601
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Incremented in microseconds
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Convert by subtracting 11644473600 and divide by a million
Firefox
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Depends
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Can be in Unixtime or Chrometime
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SQLite Forensics
Datetime Converting
Chrome – Top_Sites
SELECT last_updated,
datetime(((last_updated -11644473600000000)/1000000),'unixepoch','localtime')
As ‘last_updated’
FROM thumbnails;
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SQLite Forensics
Deleted Records
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Deleted records can be recovered! (but not always)
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Deleted records not overwritten
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Deleted records are added to a “freelist” page
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Deleted records are reassigned
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Deleted records expunged by “vacuum()”
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SQLite Forensics
MacOSX+
Important Databases
QuickLook
Document
Revisions
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SQLite Forensics
MacOSX+
DocumentRevisions
• Stores previous versions of documents
• Also stores chunks of changed documents
• File path in database links to physical path in folder tree
• Not user configurable
Filename
Path
Tables
db.sqlite
/.DocumentRevisions-V100/db-V1
files, generations, storage
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SQLite Forensics
MacOSX+
Quicklook
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Cached thumbnails for file previews in Finder
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Thumbnails for files with associated viewers
Filename
index.sqlite
Path
/private/var/folders/<dynamic>/<dynamic>_<dynamic>/C/com.apple.QuickLook.thumbnailcache
Tip to Locate find /var/folders –name “Quicklook*”
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SQLite Forensics
Browser SQLite databases
Chrome databases
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Top Sites
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Shortcuts
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History
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Favicons
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Archived history
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Cookies
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SQLite Forensics
Browser SQLite databases
Firefox databases
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Cookies
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Signons
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Places
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extensions
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SQLite Forensics
SQLite Tools
Way’s to review SQLite databases
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Forensic tools
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Database managers
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Python
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SQLite Forensics
SQLite Tools
Encase: enscript – sqlitequery
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SQLite Forensics
SQLite Tools
SQLiteDiver
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SQLite Forensics
SQLite Tools
Database Managers
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Sqliteman – database
manager
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SQLiteManager Firefox
extension
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Navicat - commercial
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SQLite Forensics
SQLite Scripting
Python as a review tool
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Build a script (to read “Favicons” database from Chrome)
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Run the script
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Review the output
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SQLite Forensics
SQLite Scripting
Python
Convert to
datetime
Linking
the tables
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SQLite Forensics
SQLite Scripting
Python
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Run the script
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SQLite Forensics
SQLite Scripting
Converted
to
Datetime!
Python
Here’s what we get as output
'http://static01.nyt.com/favicon.ico'
'http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/31/technology/amazons-shares-fall-asrevenue-disappoints.html?nl=todaysheadlines&emc=edit_th_20140131'
'2014-01-31 08:31:39
'http://www.nytimes.com/glogin?URI=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F20
14%2F01%2F31%2Ftechnology%2Famazons-shares-fall-as-revenuedisappoints.html%3Fnl%3Dtodaysheadlines%26emc%3Dedit_th_20140131%26_r
'http://static01.nyt.com/favicon.ico'
%3D0'
'2014-01-31 08:31:39
'http://www.schaeffersresearch.com/favicon.ico' 'https://lyris.schaeffer.com/t/113127/6595615/8359/50/'
'2014-01-31 09:32:07
'http://www.southwest.com/assets/images/favic
on.ico'
'http://www.southwest.com/'
'2014-03-19 10:01:18
'https://ssl.gstatic.com/s2/oz/images/faviconr3.ic
o'
'http://ow.ly/t9y7h
'
'2014-03-12 21:40:37
'
'
'
'
'
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SQLite Forensics
SQLite Lab
Lets get hands on with Python if time permits
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SQLite Forensics
Links and references
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SQLite 3 Documentation: sqlite.org
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OS X Lion Artifacts: by: Sean Cavanaugh, link
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Recovering deleted records
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Epilog
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Oxygen Forensics
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Another Forensics Blog, Python Parser
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SQLite Forensics
Q&A
David Dym
Read our book!
Email: [email protected]
Twitter: @dave873
Phone: (214) 377-1363
My Blog: www.easymetadata.com/news
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