Online Reading Strategy Use among CFL Learners PRESENTERS YI-LU KUO & PEI-SHAN YU Introduction • Online reading has become an issue for discussion in the educational field and more particularly in English as a second or foreign language (Uso-Juan & Ruiz-Madrid, 2009 ). • There are relatively fewer studies on Chinese online reading comprehension • the online reading process of CFL readers is an important unexplored area in online reading research • Previous studies (Anderson 2003; Uzunboylu, 2005; Tanyeli, 2008) indicated that online English reading have positive effects on readers’ learning motivation, academic achievement and reading skills. • CFL learners? Research Questions • a. What online reading strategies do CFL learners use in learning Chinese? • b. What are the differences of online reading strategies that CFL learners use in L1 and L2? Online Survey of Reading Strategies (OSORS) • Anderson (2003) adapted Mokhtari and Sheorey's (2002) Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) to Online Survey of Reading Strategies (OSORS) • Examine ESL and EFL students’ different use of metacognitive online reading strategies. • OSORS: 1. Global Reading Strategies: intentional, carefully planned techniques by which learners monitor or manage their reading. 2. Problem Solving Strategies: the actions and procedures that readers use while working directly with the text. 3. Support Reading Strategies: the basic support mechanisms intended to aid the reader in comprehending the text. Methods Participants • 17 advanced Chinese learners at Indiana University. • Age: 19-24 • Have learned Chinese for 3 years in the US and have been to China during summer. • Study and do internship in China after their college education. Instrument1: OSORS • 37 items: 5-point Likert scale (1: never, 5: always). • Participants were asked to read each statement and circle the number that applies to their use of the reading strategy in both L1 and L2 contexts. • Participants didn’t need to do no. 35-37 in L1 online reading strategies. • 15-20min Instrument 2: Think aloud protocol • The material is from current C401 textbook: 1,200 Chinese characters comprises written Chinese language, ancient Chinese texts and idioms. • 6 comprehension questions • 30-50 min Instrument 3: Interview • Chinese online reading strategies, their similarities and differences of L1 and L2 strategy use of online reading • 20 minutes Results – Research Question 1 a. What online reading strategies do CFL learners use in learning Chinese? Chinese L2 (Global) L2 (Problem) L2 (Support) Average 3.56 3.75 3.29 Problem Solving Reading Strategies > Global Strategies > Support Reading Strategies The result is consistent with Anderson’s (2003). -EFL learners were more frequently used problem solving strategies during the online reading process. YT: I alwaysBN: reads the Chinese text A good OWmore :When than I find once. dictionary Thereader firstcannot time Chinese is help me reading solve thehelps problems, me getas I the usually briefslowly idea. I defined a reader read trythe to sentences look up some several examples times. or who read texts Chinese slangs duringand the second carefully time reading. slowly Problem Solving Strategies Category No 15 Problem Solving 9 Strategies Strategy When online text becomes difficult, I pay closer attention to what I am reading I try to get back on track when I lose concentration 11 I adjust my reading speed according to what I am reading online 7 I read slowly and carefully to make sure I understand what I am reading online Mean 4.35 4.23 4.23 4.11 Global Strategies YT: He found that pre-reading questions help him understand the articles, but also restricts him to look for the specific answers Furthermore, he thinks learning Chinese helps him understanding better DN:I tend to jump over a lot of words that I don’t know. In the about English articles that introducing Chinese culture short term it’s really helpful. If I need to look up every word that I don’t know that will take me a long time. Some people are more words in the sentence....I don’t do Categoryfocus....oh No I have to know everyStrategy Mean that I can just keep going. I think being able to use what you do 18is helpful I usetocontext clues to you helpread. me better 4.5 know understand what Global Strategies understand what I am reading online 3 I think about what I already know to help me understand what I read online 4.29 Support Reading Strategies FR: I will search in English and to see if I clear understand the concept in English BY:ifduring because that is faster for me. But I am the think aloud protocols, he spent searching.....like I need a Chinese time onthat finding the definition, then I will definitely search original quote of the text. in Chinese like 百度一下 (Baidu) Category No Strategy Support 13 I use reference materials ( e.g., an online Reading dictionary) to help me understand what I Strategies read online Mean 5 Results- Research Question 2 b. What are the differences of online reading strategies that CFL learners use in L1 and L2? L1: English L2: Chinese Global (L1) average 3.80 Global (L2) > 3.56 Problemsolving (L1) 3.87 Problemsolving (L2) > 3.75 Support (L1) 2.63 Support (L2) < 3.29 Total (L1) 3.43 Total (L2) 3.53 • The result is consitent with Tercanlioglu's (2004). • 42 paired samples t test + Benjamini & Hochberg’s (1995) False Discovery Rate procedure • Statistically significant at p<.05: Global (L1) vs. Support (L1), Support (L1) vs. Support (L2) Differences of online reading strategies use between L1 (English) and L2 (Chinese) Items of statistically significant (p<.05) Category No OW: difficulty checking whichL1 ChineseL2 Strategy website is reliable. Mean Mean OW, TM, MT: for academic purpose, easier to 33 underline the Problem Distinguish between fact and opinion text and write down Pinyin, tone, Solving 34 Look for sites that cover both sides of an and English translation. Support 10 13 issue. Print out a hard copy and then underline or circle information Use reference materials (e.g., an online dictionary) 3.7 >3.76 >2.82 2.5 < 3.5 2.12 <5 4.76 PT : easier to look up the vocabulary by copying and pasting the online text References • Anderson, N. J. (2003). Scrolling, clicking, and reading English: Online reading strategies in a second/foreign language. The Reading Matrix, 3, 1-33. • Mokhtari, K. & Sheorey, R. (2002). Measuring ESL students’ awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Development Education, 25(3), 2-10. • Oxford, R. & Crookall, D. (1989). Research on language learning strategies: Methods, findings, and Instructional Issues. The Modern Language Journal, 73(4), 404-419. • Tercanlioglu, L. (2004). Postgraduate students’ use of reading strategies in L1 and ESL contexts: Links to success. International Education Journal, 5(4), 562-570. Questions?