Vygotsky and Erikson Lance Stryk Andrea Lindsay Vygotsky Lev Semenovich Vygotsky Born November 5, 1896; died June 11, 1934 As a Jew in Soviet Russia, he did not have much opportunity for formal education past junior high, but luckily was admitted into the Moscow University by the Jewish lottery. Enrolled in both Shaniavsky University and Moscow University, graduating from each simultaneously. Late 1980s Vygotsky’s ideas became big in the United States. His best-known work, Thought and Language (1934), was briefly suppressed as a threat to Stalinism Erikson Erik Erikson Born June 15, 1902; Died May 4, 1994 His father abandoned the family before he was born Erikson’s interest in identity came from his experiences in school where he was teased for being Nordic (tall, blonde, and blue-eyed) in his temple school and rejected in the grammar school for being Jewish. Earned a psychoanalysis certificate from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society Held position at Harvard Medical School Published books including Childhood and Society and The Life Cycle Completed Expanded on Freud’s Theory on the psychosexual aspects of development PLAY? Vygotsky: play results when a child created an imaginary world to realize their unrealized desires. Erikson: play is a function of the ego to synchronize the self with the social world. PLAY! Erikson’s Stages of Development Oral phase 1 Oral Phase 2 A child bites and grasps for objects. A child will follow a finger relatively well and without extensive coaxing, and will turn their head in an attempt to find a loud unknown sound. In the two Oral phases a child begins to form the beginnings of trust vs. mistrust. Anal Phase A child simply takes in the world through their perceptions and exhibits minimal interactions outside of basic reflexes. A child will hold object in their hands ‘stubbornly’ and will often throw the object at times. The child shows an opposite of action, at times doing one thing then turn around and so the complete opposite. Build a tower and then destroy it or cuddle one moment and then want to run away the next. A child begins to experience shame (not looking good in other peoples eyes) and doubt (the realization that they are not as powerful as they might think). Phallic Phase A child will imagine themselves in a role that they do not, in real life, hold. A child may hit or attack another person with physical violence or with their voices such as yelling or talking aggressively. A child begins to have initiative, planning, setting goals, and finding ways to achieve them, as well as guilt (that their desires go against what society dictates as acceptable). Desirous Play and Thoughtful Play Desirous Play: a play based on the retention/elimination idea in Erikson in which a child will act based on their most immediate desire correlated with interests in their immediate surroundings. Thoughtful Play: a play characterized by thought and self control in play following Erikson’s phallic stage correlated with an interest in other external things outside the immediate environment Vygotsky Theory on Interest Interest- the expressions of the child’s organic needs where “organic needs” are the stimulus and desires to interact which those stimuli with the “organic” body. The Great Mover We believe that Language is the prime mover in three key movements. 1. The move from the Anal to the Phallic Stage 2. The move from desirous to thoughtful play 3. The move from and interest in their immediate environment to an external environment. Language and Tools Vygotsky believed that language was synonymous with thought. He also believed that language allowed children to move from technical thought (practical intelligence with the use of tools) to internal thought. A child is able to use a tool (schemas) before processing speech. A tool could be a chair it to sit in. It is when the child begins to acquire speech that they plan things and are capable of a greater range of tasks with this speech as well as using their acquired schemas. As they grow older a child will internalize the speech which results in inner-speech. Vygotsky’s theory of concept development Phase I: Syncretic Heaps- a group of objects which are linked together by what a child perceives to be similar without any real world link. A child begins by using trial and error to find similarities with objects in their immediate reach. The organization then extends to the field of view of the child where a child groups them based on their relation to space and time. Finally, a child will group elements based on different elements taken from previously formed groups. Phase II: Thinking in Complexes. A complex would include objects which are similar based on the concrete and factual bonds which exist in the real world. This begins with the associative type where a “family name” is extracted from different “proper names”. A child then forms collections which are the realization that the objects are similar in some traits and dissimilar in others, but participate in the same functional relation. Chain complexes result from the linking of complexes in a single line of thought in which the specific traits linked might not be the same. This type of thinking becomes more fluid and eventually reached diffuse complexes characterized by the fluid chain complexes. Eventually a child will form pseudo-complexes which are similar to adult concepts, but on a lower level. Our Hypothesis Our Hypothesis: There is a natural move from, what we refer to as, desirous play to thoughtful play that coincides with the acquisition of language. This shift coincides with Erikson’s stage theory especially between the anal and phallic stages where a child masters his/her own body and begins to actively engage and influence the external world Guiding Questions Is language involved in the move between desirous and thoughtful play? What is the purpose of desirous play? Language is not necessary for this move to occur as in the example of sign language. Concept or pseudoconcept formation is key however. The move from anal to phallic stage is facilitated and maybe a result or forming pseudoconcepts. To formulate and enhance motor skills associated with the child’s body. To provide confidence in self over the body. What are the indicators of this move? When a child is confident in his/her ability over the body (doesn’t need to consciously think about movement). When a child acquires enough pseudoconcepts to begin mastering the environment. Terms to Know Desirous Play Thoughtful Play Pseudo-Concept Observer Withdrawn Observer The Setting Location The Grant House 4321 Myerwood Lane, Dallas, TX 75244 Living Room and “School House” Time March 25, 2011 Procedure Researchers will enter the chosen environment with the child they plan to observe. One observer will serve as the withdrawn observer, taking a position outside of direct contact with the child. This observer will record the interactions and exchanges between the child and “participant observer”. The other observer will take a position within range of the child; if the child is to engage one of the observers, they will become a participant observer, reacting to the child’s actions without purposefully directing the child’s behavior. If the child does not approach either of the observers, each with record their own observations, to be compared later. During the course of the observations the observers will rank the children on various aspects so as to provide a more clear picture of the language level, developmental stages (according to Erikson), and the appearance of thought in play (resulting from time attributed to certain tasks). The Subjects Michael: 4 Year Old Male Asks if Lance is looking Hits toys together (lego figures) Babbling noises and giggling can’t interpret them “wha-sis-a-wa-wa” repeated phrase “he’s the leader” “can we start?” “don’t use all of that” rules Michael “You can use that” um-um Takes on role “I want to be the Romans” asks Lance his opinion Sets rules “but this is a woman’s sword (roman)” “No I’m the Romans” sets the rules Able to tell situations in the past talks about Kelly leaving the airport “I was there” Picks up talk from brother downstairs Lance interacts with Michael talks to brother “which sword?” Separates toys “these are mine” Picks one up, puts it down Michael: 4 Year Old Male “shorts” talk Michael’s horses are lined up like Lance’s “this guy is yours” Animates soldiers, man in cape Michael’s toys are in piles; Lance’s toys are in lines “No” as Lance tries to take horse; “all those are Kevin’s” “since you have more people, I get doubles [weapons]” gets up to look at brother and friend downstairs “don’t have carrots, need carrots” ?? counts soldiers “half face” puts figure in a certain way Lance “can’t have doubles” “ok, I’m ready, time to face the Romans” “I need another weapon”; “no not that one” “is this a weapon?” Michael holds up figure with stick in hand to Lance; Lance, “It could be”; Michael, “it’s not” continues to align men looking for something Concentration looks for spears and ax four of Michael’s men lined up; all others are on the ground facing Lance’s army points to them (as if counting) but gets the number wrong “you have seven” there are 18 “I have 18, you have six, no you have five, no I think about six or five” “look at this tiny little horse”; Lance says, “That’s a donkey”; Michael replies, “No it’s a horse” he has 13 bowman needs bows Michael lines up his men like Lance “not like that” attention to detail “that’s mine” “you go first” he changes his mind and says “I go first” he dies asks Lance “do you love him?” “no no you have to hit the same guy” rules “I killed your favorite guy” “my swords are God” doesn’t let Lance have a turn Michael… Again “remember that big snake we saw” shows arms to show “bigness” “and it was tiny, and it was big and all flat” Shows Lance everything “killed my favorite thing, he’s not my favorite” “he’s nobody, he’s… David” “they both have a shield” bashes them together “now he’s my leader” 25 minutes long “who goes first?” “whose your favorite?” to Lance takes the favorite figure “whose your other favorite?” “you killed my leader”; kills leader “is this your leader?” picks him up; “he’s gone” on task for a long period of time checks on brother to “see what they’re doing” Collin: 2 Year Old Male Collin reaches for the train and throws it Collin carrying around bear and crackers Picks up toy train and throws it on the ground Picks both up Kicks it Watches Michael play with train on the track Takes Lance’s train and makes noises Makes grunting noises Looks at track; sits down Jams train through tunnel Takes train and uses it on the track Watches Michael go through it Puts train on top of tunnel Watches Michael puts the trains together, tries to do the same thing Collin sits and watches Lance Back and forth Looks at train, then back to track Falls over “ow” Michael and Collin playing together Collin: 2 Year Old Male Goes through tunnel listens to noise Babbling (but binky is in mouth) plays hide with Andrea behind the ottoman Crashes trains together Lay on the ground, head against footrest Plays hide and seek with Andrea again throws 2 trains at the same time Hits track makes noises while he’s playing with the trains Takes snacks and drink and leaves switches trains every couple seconds Watching sister About ten minutes Talks to self Crashes toys together; shows Lance Does it repeatedly Laughs at trains Looks at door when it is opened “where’d he go?” throws train put them together by the wheels lifts up train tracks and show Lance and then puts them back down tries to piece tunnel together but it doesn’t work keeps trying to fix it grabs snacks and shows to Lance Problems or Circumstances Overall, our hypothesis was correct. This is due to the fact that we based it on previous observations and correlated it to our own theories. For thinking between the two types of play there is no automatic switch from desirous to thoughtful play. It is more of a gradual switch. Look Back Our Hypothesis: There is a natural move from, what we refer to as, desirous play to thoughtful play that coincides with the acquisition of language. This shift coincides with Erikson’s stage theory especially between the anal and phallic stages where a child masters his/her own body and begins to actively engage and influence the external world Improvements As with most, if not all studies, we want a larger range of kids i.e. a bigger sample size with variation in the gender. Ideally we want to have children composed of the various stages of language development (simple babbling, one-word phrases, etc.) and see if there is a true correlation between language and the transition between the various elements examined. ? Questions?