20 Years of Dutch Palestinian Relations

Report
‘Water and Energy’
Time for solutions: from risk to resource
30 April 2014
Palestinian Water Authority
Coastal Municipalities Water Utility
Presentation Roadmap
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Situation Overview
Water & Energy Needs in Gaza
Fragility of System & Capacity to Respond to Emergencies
The Cost: Human, Financial, Operational, Environmental
Bottlenecks & Barriers
Water Sector Strategy
Solutions and Priorities
2
Rafah
Crossing Point
GAZA
Erez
Crossing Point
Nahal Oz
Crossing Point
Karni
Crossing Point
o 1.8 million inhabitants,
half of them children,
in 378 km2
o One of the highest
population densities in
the world
(4,726 persons per km2)
Sufa
Crossing Point
Kerem Shalom
Crossing Point
o Closure since 2007 =
deteriorating
humanitarian situation
Gaza De-Development
• Movement of people and goods severely restricted
• Approx. 95% of groundwater not fit to drink, 90 million litres of sewage discharged
into sea daily
• No access to one-third of arable land, and two-thirds of fishing grounds
• Import of most construction, raw materials & spare parts restricted
41.5%
Unemploy
ment
39%
Poverty
57%
Food
Insecure
80%
Aid
Recipients
This negatively impacts people’s ability to pay utility bills (average of 39% pay), and
the sustainability of water & sanitation services to cover annual operation and
maintenance costs of $30 million.
Compounded by energy crisis:
• Blackouts
• Risk of raw sewage flooding residential areas
4
Water Crisis in Gaza
• Gaza Strip relies on
underlying portion of
Coastal aquifer as only
water source
• Over-extraction results
source in intrusion of
seawater
• Causes excessive chloride
levels so water is too salty
to drink
5
Water Supply / Demand Imbalance
Deficit of
147MCM/y
Water
Resource
Management
Water over extraction leads to water quality deterioration
Estimated Energy cost: Now vs. Full Electricity
Supply for water & sanitation in Gaza
Annual Electricity and Fuel Expenditures -Million US$ (8 hours Daily Cut)
Full Electricity
Coverage $12.27 M
14.00
12.00
Total Cost
Now:
$14.94 M
Million US$
10.00
8.18
8.00
6.76
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
Diesel Fuel Cost
Electricity
Full Electricity Coverage
Energy represents the largest controllable cost of providing water or
wastewater services to the public
7
Energy needs for water and sanitation
facilities 2012 to 2020
8
Contingency Planning and Response
Fragility of system negatively impacts ability to prepare for
and respond to emergencies in terms of:
•
•
•
•
Repairs and maintenance
Infrastructure
Staff readiness
Management
9
Cumulative Humanitarian Impact of Energy Crisis in
terms of Water and Sanitation
Reduced water supply to households (summer)
15% supplied every day, 25% once
every 4 days, 40% once every 3 days,
20% every 2 days; supply cycles
last 5-6 hours.
Reduced supply in desalinated water
for drinking (summer)
60% drop in volume of water produced
by 25 desalination units operated
by CMWU, which supply ~160,000 people,
forcing them to purchase water from unregulated
and biologically questionable vendors.
10
Cumulative Humanitarian Impact of Energy Crisis in
terms of Water and Sanitation
Flooding of sewage pumping stations (winter)
Failure and increasing inability to
operate pumps resulted in flooding
from sewage pumping; sewage pumping
stations divert sewage to open
channels, the sea or storm water lagoons.
Flooding of storm water
mixed with sewage (winter)
11
Cumulative Humanitarian Impact of Energy Crisis in
terms of Water and Sanitation
Release of 90 million liters of raw and
partially treated wastewater into
the sea every day (year round)
Recap of Bottlenecks & Barriers
• Lack of adequate water resources
• Current supply of energy is insufficient and unsustainable
• Delayed entry of materials and restricted import of most
construction raw materials and spare parts of materials
• Restricted movement of persons to enable update of human
technical knowledge and skills
• Allocated budgets tend to focus on meeting immediate
humanitarian needs at expense of developing sustainable
mid-to-longer term solutions
13
Water Sector Strategy & Investment Plan
Comparative Study of Options (CSO), Gaza 2011:
14
Gap in Capital Investment
Millions in $
801
701
601
501
466
401
301
245.5
214.5
174
201
101
245.5
226
85
52
28
7
5.5
1
STLV
Desla.& Associ.
Works
Estimation
WWTP
Pledging
WW Reuse
Committed
Total
15
The Cost of Inaction: Gaza in 2020
1. Aquifer is irreversibly damaged
2. No water resource is available
3. Serious public health risks
4. No food security (very limited agricultural activities)
Gaza Population Livelihood Threatened
16
Summary of Key Actions for Water & Sanitation
 STLV Desalination (13 MCM per year)
• $52 million total cost; $28M committed. Gap: $24M
 Import of Materials and Movement of Persons
• Requires advocacy to ease entry restrictions
 Import Additional Water from Israel (16 MCM per year)
• Pipeline in place; requires advocacy to open valve
 Regional Desalination and Associated Work (55 MCM per year)
• System configuration and upgrade (requires entry of materials)
• $466 million total cost; $245.5M pledged; $5.5M committed.
Gap: $217M
 Waste Water Treatment integrated into Waste Water Re-use
• $226 million total cost; $174M committed. Gap: $52M
• Required to initiate waste water re-use pilot
17
 Operational & Maintenance Costs. $30 million. Gap: $18M
Summary of Key Actions for Energy
 Build additional electrical infrastructure to import electricity from
Israel (100MW).
• Gap: $25million ($11M in Gaza; $14M in Israel)
 Build additional electrical infrastructure to import electricity from
Egypt (150MW, up to 300MW after 3 years).
• Requires advocacy
• Gap: $160million ($60M in Gaza; $100M in Egypt)
 Increase amount of electricity coming through existing regional grid
from Egypt from 28MW to 48MW
 Upgrade Gaza Power Plant from diesel (1.7 NIS/KWh) to natural gas
(0.35 NIS/KWh)
• Existing plant can run on natural gas but requires new pipeline
18
• Cost: $32million (can be built in 8 months)
Thank you!
Towards a collective
partnership for sustainable
WASH services

similar documents