Chapter 9 Society and Politics in the Early Republic

Chapter 9
Society and Politics in
the Early Republic
The American People, 6th ed.
I. A Nation of Regions
The Northeast
 The Northeast region stretched from
eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey to
New England.
 Small family farms dotted the landscape
and produced a surplus of goods.
 People used the barter system for
economic exchanges. Cash was rare.
 The demand for heating fuel quickly
depleted the region’s forests.
The South
 The South stretch from Maryland to
Georgia along the coast, and west to the
newly forming states of Alabama and
 Planters had experimented with a number
of grains, but had little success until cotton
was imported from Europe.
 The invention of the cotton gin in 1793
allowed one laborer to clean up to 50
pounds of cotton a day.
 The Trans-Appalachia region consisted
of the lands west of established white
settlement known as the “backcountry” or
 Settlers, drawn by the promotions of land
speculators, moved west into the region
in astounding numbers between 1790
and 1810.
The Nation’s Cities
 Although most Americans lived on the land or in
small villages, a growing number chose to live in
the expanding cities.
 The most aggressive urban growth was found in
the Northeast due to established ports of
commerce and booming economy.
 In Trans-Appalachia, cities like Chicago and
Pittsburg began to spring up along the Great
Lakes and interior rivers.
 Cities were relatively small, dangerous, and
Indian-White Relations
in the Early Republic
The Goals of Indian Policy
 From 1790 to 1830, the federal government
established policies toward Native Americans
ostensibly to integrate them into white society.
 The Indian’s refusal to view themselves as a
conquered people forced the government to deal
with the tribes through land treaties.
 Illegal infringement of tribal lands rarely ceased,
always in the benevolent guise of education or
III. Perfecting a Democratic
The Revolutionary
 Social reform was inspired by the
democratic ideals of the Revolution.
 Americans accepted the ideal of
differences in wealth or social standing
but could not tolerate the suggestion that
such differences made some people
better than others.
Race, Slavery, and the
Limits of Reform
 In the South, the aggressive growth of
cotton cultivation made the price of slave
labor skyrocket.
 Antislavery appeals from abolitionists all
but disappeared, even from oncevehement religious groups and the
nation’s capital.
 Antislavery reform also weakened in the
IV. The End of NeoColonialism
The War of 1812
 War Hawks of Congress had tolerated enough of
Britain’s presence on American soil.
 President Madison finally asked Congress for a
declaration of war on June 1, 1812.
 British forces occupied Washington in 1814,
burning the Capital and presidential mansion.
 Hostilities ended by the Treaty of Ghent on
Christmas Eve, 1814.
The United States and
the Americas
 President Monroe issued an 1823 statement on Latin
America, known today as the Monroe Doctrine:
 The American colonies were closed to new exploration.
 The political systems of the Americas were separate
from those of Europe
 The United States would consider hostile any influence
from European powers.
 The United States would refrain from interference in
established colonies in the New World.
V. Knitting a Nation
Conquering Distance
 The beginnings of the transportation revolution
helped to bring the nation together.
 Travel and circulation of the printed word were
the only ways of communicating across space.
 New turnpikes, construction of the National
Road, canal building, and advances in steampowered ships helped quicken the spread of
Strengthening American
 National pride during this era was shaped
by the War of 1812 and the religious
revivalism of the Second Great
 Also important were landmark decisions
by the Supreme Court regarding judicial
review and supremacy of the federal
government over the states.
The Specter of
 Despite the rampant nationalism following the
War of 1812, political unity in the nation was
 Most divisive was the issue of slavery in the
vast, new territory west of the Mississippi River.
 Again, a compromise avoided disaster. The
new state of Missouri was admitted to the
Union as a slave state and Maine was admitted
as a free state.
VI. Politics in Transition
The Demise of the
 Following the War of 1812, the Federalists
were plagued by accusations of disloyalty.
 Federalists continued to believe that political
leadership should be restricted to “the wise and
the good.”
 An increasingly hostile electorate eschewed
traditional Federalist values and continued to
turn to the party of Jefferson.
Division Among the
 During the early years of the nineteenth century, the
Jeffersonian Republicans monopolized the nation’s
presidency and legislature.
 Their success was largely due to the decline of the
 Trying to appeal to a broad base of Americans,
Madison’s administration began a program of nationally
sponsored economic development through road and
canal construction, protective tariffs, and the creation of
the second Bank of the United States. Collectively, this
plan was called the American System and began to draw
criticism immediately.
Collapse of the FederalistJefferson Party System
 The final collapse of the party system was
triggered by the election of 1824.
 For the first time in years, there was active
competition for the presidency from all
 After voting, none of the candidates received a
majority, and a subsequent vote by the House
elected John Quincy Adams even though Adams
had trailed in original electoral votes.
 As a result, Adams served his presidency under
a cloud of suspicion and party politics began a
process of realignment.

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