Aerospace Medicine and Human Engineering

Aerospace Medicine and Human
Beginnings of Aerospace
• Established in 1918 with the founding of the
Army Aviation Medical Research
Laboratory at Hazelhurst Field.
• Research was conducted to support flyers in
Air Supremacy
• Theory that you must “control the skies” before you
can win on the ground
Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA, or Triple A)
Surface to Air Missiles (SAMs)
Beginnings of Aerospace
• The study of flight physiology started with
the balloon ascension of Joseph and Etienne
Beginnings of Aerospace
• French physicist Jacques Charles
Beginnings of Aerospace
• John Jeffries and Jean-Pierre Blanchard
Beginnings of Aerospace
• Coxwell and Glaisher
• The Father of Aviation
Medicine-Paul Bert
• Conducted experiments
with barometric pressure
• Proved the principle
effects of altitude on the
• Made the first lowpressure altitude chamber
Beginnings of Aerospace
• Sivel, Croce’-Spinelli and Tissandier
• Conducted experiments by refraining from
• Before they were aware that they were
suffering from oxygen starvation they became
• Tissandier was the only survivor.
Beginnings of Aerospace Medicine
• Schools of Aviation Medicine
• The Signal Corp established an
Aeronautical Division in 1907.
• In 1917, General Theodore
Charles Lyster was the first
chief surgeon, Aviation
Section, Signal Corps, United
States Army.
• In 1953, General Harry G.
Armstrong participated in the
establishment of the
Aeromedical Laboratory in
Dayton, Ohio.
Care of Flyers
• The Armed Forces have doctors with
special training in the care of flyers.
• Flight surgeons perform periodic
examinations on fliers to evaluate their
physical and mental fitness.
• The flight surgeon is not only concerned
about the pilot but also the conditions the
pilot finds in the cockpit.
Flight Physical
• Every year
• When sick, you’re put on DNIF:
– “Duty Not to Include Flying”
• Drug testing at any time
• “GROUNDED!” Not words you want to
– $800/month extra pay on flight status
– Sometimes $12,000/year bonus
– The joy of flying
Stress Test
• 0-149 Low susceptibility
to stress-related illness
• 150-299 Medium
susceptibility to stressrelated illness.
• 300 + High susceptibility
to stress-related illness
Daily practice of relaxation
skills is very important for
your wellness. Take care of it
now before a serious illness
erupts or an affliction becomes
READ PP. 2-31 TO 2-37
& 39-40 (PARTS A & D)
Man and Machine
• The matching of man and machine is constantly
under study by human engineering
• Every control and instrument in the aircraft
must be developed with regard to the pilots
• The military has had standardization of the
instrument panel since high-performance
aircraft came into use
“Basic T” design of
attitude indicator is in top
center, airspeed to the left,
altitude to the right and
heading indicator under
the attitude indicator.
Man and Machine
• Servomechanisms are an important area of
interest to human engineering.
• Another area of importance in human
engineering is in designing protective
equipment for flight.
Research on the Fringe of Space
• Balloons - Valuable for collecting
physiological data.
• In 1931, Auguste Piccard perfected the
oxygen-pressure gondola for balloons.
• In 1935, Captains Anderson and Stevens
ascended to 72,395 feet.
• In 1957 Major Simons ascended to 102,000
Research on the Fringe of Space
• The Excelsior balloon flights began in 1959
• Captain Kittinger rode in an open gondola
protected only by his oxygen supply and pressure
• On the first flight he jumped from the gondola at
76,400 feet.
• The second and third flights were completed
successfully. On the third he ascended and
jumped from a height of 102,800 feet.
Research on the Fringe of Space
• Research Aircraft: X-1
• The first U.S. rocket aircraft.
• Chuck Yeager became the first man to fly faster
the speed of sound.
Research on the Fringe of Space
• Research Aircraft: X-2
• The X-2 was subjected to intense friction heating.
• The pilot was protected with cooling equipment in
his pressure suit.
Research on the Fringe of Space
• Research Aircraft: X-15
• The X-15 reached a speed of 4,534 mph and an
altitude of 354,200 feet.
• Several pilots received astronaut ratings.
Research on the Fringe of Space
• Research Aircraft: X-24B
• Wingless with a flat undersurface.
• X-24B research program was conducted with
Research on the Fringe of Space
• Animal Astronauts
• Scientists and engineers
began experimenting with
rockets following
World War II.
• Medical researchers then
sent animals into the upper
Research on the Fringe of Space
• Animal Astronauts
• Mice and other small animals were used for the
early experiments.
• As rockets became more powerful, larger
payloads could be sent into space.
Research on the Fringe of Space
• Before American astronauts were rocketed
into space, two chimpanzees were used to
test the mercury spacecraft and the flight
Beginnings of Aviation Medicine
Care of Flyers
Man and Machine
Research on the Fringe of Space

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