WORLD WAR II Pacific Campaign DISCUSS/REVIEW How did the United States get involved in World War II? Neutrality Acts • 1935 – prohibited export of “arms, ammunition, & implements of war” to foreign, warring nations • 1937 – warring nations could get any item except arms • 1939 – lifted arms embargo, putting all trade with warring nations under terms of “cash-&-carry” • any item could be sold as long as it was immediately paid for Lend-Lease • United States would provide a country with supplies needed to fight Germany • the country would NOT have to pay the United States back immediately • United States contracted Lend-Lease agreements with 30+ countries, worth $50B • program was designed to allow America to indirectly help defeat Germany PEARL HARBOR- “A day that will live in infamy” • What is Pearl Harbor? – Naval base in Hawaii, USA – served as the docking station for the entire U.S. Pacific fleet • When? – December 7, 1941 • What happened? – Near 200 Japanese warplanes attack the U.S. Pacific fleet & airfields – 2,300 Americans killed – 1,100 Americans wounded – 18 warships were sunk or heavily damaged, including 8 battleships – December 8 US declares war on Japan – December 11 Germany & Italy declare war on US DISCUSS What does the Pacific look like prior to WWII? DISCUSS How do the Japanese follow up Pearl Harbor? DISCUSS Where will Japan attack next? DISCUSS How did the U.S. get the Philippines? PHILIPPINES ATTACKED • Philippines – Conquered by U.S. during the time of imperialism – General Douglas MacArthur was in charge there • Japan invades Philippines – Japanese attacks were heavy – Conquered in 3 months – MacArthur was ordered to evacuate to Australia by FDR – MacArthur: “I shall return!” – 11,000 American and Filipino soldiers surrendered DISCUSS Do you think the U.S. was ready for a war in the Pacific? DISCUSS How did the Japanese treat the American and Filipino POWs? BATAAN DEATH MARCH • Bataan Death March – Bataan – part of Philippines – Japanese torture American and Filipino Prisoners of War (POWs) – Americans forced into groups and made to march 60 miles – Japanese soldiers denied POWs water and rest and many were beaten and tortured – 10,000 died on the 12 day hike – 15,000 more died in camps DISCUSS Why did the Japanese hate POWs? Doolittle’s Raid and Coral Sea • String of Japanese victories (Guam, Wake, Burma, Philippines – Seemed unbeatable – Colonel James Doolittle launces bombing attacking of Tokyo, April 1942 – Raised Allied morale – May 1942, Battle of the Coral Sea • Used aircraft carriers • Able to stop Japanese advance to air base in New Guinea DISCUSS How do the Allies finally strike back at the Japanese? DISCUSS What happens at Midway? DISCUSS Who is this man? What has he already done to the U.S.? BATTLE OF MIDWAY • Battle of Midway – Japanese lured Americans into a trap at Midway – U.S. planes catch Japanese ships off guard & bombed them – Americans destroy 4 large carriers and 332 planes • Impact – Major Allied victory – Japan’s navy weakened; forced to be defensive from now on – Turning Point in the Pacific Admiral Yamamoto leads the Japanese fleet in the Battle of Midway DISCUSS After Midway, how do the Allies change their strategy? NEW U.S. STRATEGY • Japanese Islands – The Japanese had firm control of hundreds of islands in the Pacific – To attack each would take a tremendous amount of time and cost many lives • Island Hopping – General Douglas MacArthur decides to “hop” from one island to another attacking certain ones – Hopes this will cut off the islands from Japanese reinforcements – 1st target: Guadalcanal BATTLE OF GUADALCANAL • Guadalcanal – Japan was planning on making it a huge air base – Called “Island of Death” by Japan – Allies (U.S. & Australia) need to attack before that happens • Battle of Guadalcanal – MacArthur attacks and Allies easily take control of the air base – Battle become brutal after that – Six months of fighting later, the Japanese abandoned the island having lost 24,000 soldiers SUMMARIZE How was the Battle of Midway a turning point of WWII in the Pacific?