J-TOWN San Jose’s Japantown IMMIGRATION LAWS • 1875 Page Law against entry of Asian laborers • 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act specific to Chinese • 1885 Alien Contract Labor Law • 1917 Immigration Act of 1917, included a literacy test • 1921 Quota Act, numerical limitations for the first time • 1924 Immigration Act further reduced the total number of admissions • 1925 the Border Patrol established • 1929, immigration to the US limited to 150,000 • 1934-1935 Laws aimed at limiting immigration of Filipinos CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT 1882 CHINATOWN SAN JOSE CHINATOWN SAN JOSE San Jose’s second Chinatown mysteriously burnt to the ground in 1887 HEINLENVILLE • Named for its owner and benefactor, John Heinlen, Heinlenville came about after Heinlen, who liked the Chinese, offered up his own property for the new location. • Ignoring the public outrage, it was here that Heinlen built a Chinatown entirely out of brick which he then rented to the Chinese at very low rates. JOHN HEINLEN • John Heinlen, a local businessman, braved death threats to lease property to the displaced Chinese. This area near today’s Japantown at Taylor and Sixth became known as Heinlenville . • Heinlenville was a center of ChineseAmerican business and cultural life through the early part of the 20th century. • Despite their poverty, the people of Heinlenville donated their earnings from menial jobs to build their much revered Ng Shing Gung, a community center and house of worship. Immigrants from Japan When the first Japanese began to arrive in San Jose in the 1890’s, they settled east of Sixth Street between Jackson and Taylor Streets, near the Heinlenville Chinatown. CHINESE AND JAPANESE IN SANTA CLARA COUNTY 1860-1940 Year Chinese Japanese 1860 22 -- 1870 1,525 -- 1880 2,695 -- 1890 2,723 27 1900 1,738 284 1910 1,064 2,299 1920 839 2,981 1930 761 4,320 1940 555 4,049 Lukes and Okihiro, 1985:19 PICTURE BRIDES ALIEN LAND ACTS • laws enacted by various Western states that prevented Japanese (and other Asian) immigrants from purchasing land. First enacted in the 1910s, the laws generally remained in effect until well after World War II. Issei Nisei Sansei First generation immigrant Japanese American most of whom came to the US between 1885 and 1924 Americanborn children of Japanese immigrants Americanborn grandchildren of Japanese immigrants Yonsei Gosei Shin-Issei American-born great grandchildren of Japanese immigrants American-born great-great grandchildren of Japanese immigrants New Issei, newcomers to the US after WWII GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENT • the 1908 agreement between Japan and the United States that halted Japanese labor migration to the United States. IMMIGRATION ACT OF 1924: • legislation that restricted overall immigration to the United States and banned further Japanese immigration. IMMIGRATION STATION CHINESE DINING ROOM JAPANESE WOMEN AT ANGEL ISLAND HOSPITAL • The hospital on Angel Island had a state-of-theart laboratory • Racial and ethnic segregation policy at the hospital and immigration station; separate entrances for whites and Asians; separate staircases; separate patient wards— Europeans kept in separate wards SARAH WINCHESTER HAD MANY JAPANESE EMPLOYEES TOMMIE NISHIHARA AND GRANDDAUGHTER MOON BRIDGE, IMPORTED FROM JAPAN, BELONGING TO SARAH WINCHESTER ITO NISHIHARA WITH BABY DAUGHTER, FLANKED BY THE HANSON BOYS AT THE WINCHESTER RANCH MRS. NISHIHARA AND HANSON BABY 1940 BEFORE THE WAR NISEI QUEEN EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 After Executive Order 9066 JAPANESE AMEICAN INTERNMENT REPORTING FOR REGISTRATION Obeying the law MANZANAR Uchida Family, three generations WRA RELOCATION CENTERS • • • • • • • • • • Manzanar Tule Lake Poston Gila River Granada Heart Mountain Minidoka Topaz Rohwer Jerome California March 1942 California May 1942 Arizona May 1942 Arizona July 1942 Colorado August 1942 Wy August 1942 Idaho August 1942 Utah September 1942 Arkansas Sept 1942 Arkansas Oct 1942 10,046 18,789 17,814 13,348 7,318 10,767 9,397 8,130 8,475 8,497 DRAFT RESISTERS “no no boys” US MILITARY Masaru Nakagaki TULE LAKE Japanese Language School RETURNING AFTER THE WAR Santa Clara Valley NIHONMACHI JAPANTOWN “JAPANTOWN” NIHONMACHI • The term "Japantown" encompasses a wide range of communities, from large Nihonmachi in metropolitan areas that include numerous community institutions and businesses, to rural Japantowns with relatively small populations and more limited community facilities. • Why do you think were German-Americans and Italian Americans not encamped? PRESERVING CALIFORNIA’S JAPANTOWNS the first statewide project to document historic resources of pre-World War II Japantowns. • The three Japantowns in San Francisco, San Jose, and Los Angeles are the last of the major Japanese communities to survive the demolition during urban renewal in the 1950’s and 1960’s and the forced evacuation and incarceration of Japanese Americans in concentration camps during World War II. They provide a true sense of place for Japanese Americans today.