San Jose`s Japantown

Report
J-TOWN
San Jose’s Japantown
IMMIGRATION
LAWS
• 1875 Page Law against entry of Asian laborers
• 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act specific to Chinese
• 1885 Alien Contract Labor Law
• 1917 Immigration Act of 1917, included a literacy test
• 1921 Quota Act, numerical limitations for the first
time
• 1924 Immigration Act further reduced the total
number of admissions
• 1925 the Border Patrol established
• 1929, immigration to the US limited to 150,000
• 1934-1935 Laws aimed at limiting immigration of
Filipinos
CHINESE
EXCLUSION
ACT 1882
CHINATOWN
SAN JOSE
CHINATOWN
SAN JOSE
San Jose’s
second
Chinatown
mysteriously
burnt to the
ground in 1887
HEINLENVILLE
• Named for its owner and benefactor,
John Heinlen, Heinlenville came about
after Heinlen, who liked the Chinese,
offered up his own property for the new
location.
• Ignoring the public outrage, it was here
that Heinlen built a Chinatown entirely
out of brick which he then rented to the
Chinese at very low rates.
JOHN
HEINLEN
• John Heinlen, a local businessman,
braved death threats to lease
property to the displaced Chinese. This
area near today’s Japantown at Taylor
and Sixth became known as
Heinlenville .
• Heinlenville was a center of ChineseAmerican business and cultural life
through the early part of the 20th
century.
• Despite their poverty, the people of
Heinlenville donated their earnings
from menial jobs to build their much
revered Ng Shing Gung, a community
center and house of worship.
Immigrants from Japan
When the first Japanese began
to arrive in San Jose in the
1890’s, they settled east of Sixth
Street between Jackson and
Taylor Streets, near the
Heinlenville Chinatown.
CHINESE AND
JAPANESE IN
SANTA CLARA
COUNTY
1860-1940
Year
Chinese
Japanese
1860
22
--
1870
1,525
--
1880
2,695
--
1890
2,723
27
1900
1,738
284
1910
1,064
2,299
1920
839
2,981
1930
761
4,320
1940
555
4,049
Lukes and Okihiro, 1985:19
PICTURE
BRIDES
ALIEN LAND
ACTS
• laws enacted by various Western states
that prevented Japanese (and other
Asian) immigrants from purchasing
land. First enacted in the 1910s, the laws
generally remained in effect until well
after World War II.
Issei
Nisei
Sansei
First
generation
immigrant
Japanese
American
most of
whom came
to the US
between 1885
and 1924
Americanborn children
of Japanese
immigrants
Americanborn
grandchildren
of Japanese
immigrants
Yonsei
Gosei
Shin-Issei
American-born
great grandchildren
of Japanese
immigrants
American-born
great-great
grandchildren of
Japanese
immigrants
New Issei,
newcomers to the
US after WWII
GENTLEMEN'S
AGREEMENT
• the 1908 agreement between Japan and
the United States that halted Japanese
labor migration to the United States.
IMMIGRATION
ACT OF 1924:
• legislation that restricted overall
immigration to the United States and
banned further Japanese immigration.
IMMIGRATION
STATION
CHINESE
DINING ROOM
JAPANESE
WOMEN AT
ANGEL
ISLAND
HOSPITAL
• The hospital on Angel
Island had a state-of-theart laboratory
• Racial and ethnic
segregation policy at the
hospital and immigration
station; separate entrances
for whites and Asians;
separate staircases;
separate patient wards—
Europeans kept in separate
wards
SARAH
WINCHESTER
HAD MANY
JAPANESE
EMPLOYEES
TOMMIE
NISHIHARA AND
GRANDDAUGHTER
MOON BRIDGE,
IMPORTED
FROM JAPAN,
BELONGING TO
SARAH
WINCHESTER
ITO NISHIHARA
WITH BABY
DAUGHTER,
FLANKED BY
THE HANSON
BOYS AT THE
WINCHESTER
RANCH
MRS.
NISHIHARA
AND HANSON
BABY
1940
BEFORE THE
WAR
NISEI QUEEN
EXECUTIVE
ORDER 9066
After Executive Order 9066
JAPANESE
AMEICAN
INTERNMENT
REPORTING
FOR
REGISTRATION
Obeying the law
MANZANAR
Uchida Family, three generations
WRA
RELOCATION
CENTERS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Manzanar
Tule Lake
Poston
Gila River
Granada
Heart Mountain
Minidoka
Topaz
Rohwer
Jerome
California March 1942
California May 1942
Arizona May 1942
Arizona July 1942
Colorado August 1942
Wy August 1942
Idaho August 1942
Utah September 1942
Arkansas Sept 1942
Arkansas Oct 1942
10,046
18,789
17,814
13,348
7,318
10,767
9,397
8,130
8,475
8,497
DRAFT
RESISTERS
“no no boys”
US MILITARY
Masaru Nakagaki
TULE LAKE
Japanese Language School
RETURNING
AFTER THE
WAR
Santa Clara Valley
NIHONMACHI
JAPANTOWN
“JAPANTOWN”
NIHONMACHI
• The term "Japantown"
encompasses a wide
range of communities,
from large Nihonmachi
in metropolitan areas
that include numerous
community institutions
and businesses, to rural
Japantowns with
relatively small
populations and more
limited community
facilities.
• Why do you think were German-Americans and Italian Americans not encamped?
PRESERVING
CALIFORNIA’S
JAPANTOWNS
the first statewide project to document
historic resources of pre-World War II
Japantowns.
• The three Japantowns in San Francisco,
San Jose, and Los Angeles are the last of
the major Japanese communities to
survive the demolition during urban
renewal in the 1950’s and 1960’s and the
forced evacuation and incarceration of
Japanese Americans in concentration
camps during World War II. They
provide a true sense of place for
Japanese Americans today.

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