Ch. 21: The Progressive Era, 1900-1917 How did intellectuals, novelists, and journalists help lay the groundwork for the progressive movement? What problems of the new urban-industrial order particularly disturbed progressives, and how did they address these problems? How did progressive reform affect ordinary Americans, including workers, women, immigrants, city dwellers, and African Americans? As progressivism emerged as a national movement, which politicians and issues proved most important? How did progressivism change Americans’ view of the proper role of government? The Many Faces of Progressivism The rapid growing middle class (native-born, white, and Protestant) White-collar work jumped from 5.1 to 10.5 million between 1900-1920 Professional societies began to emerge (Bar, Advertising, Professors) People had new allegiances, certification, licensing, membership and standardization With these new identities came an effort to make their influence felt College educated women tripled and the divorce rate crept up – the “New Woman” emerged The initial push for reform came from women’s clubs, settlement houses, and private groups, not from political parties Even the urban political machines got involved later No matter, progressivism was a series of political and cultural responses to industrialization and its byproducts They were journalists, academics, social theorists, urban dwellers; reformers, not radicals They sought the following: Regulation of business Protection of workers and the urban poor Government reform Improved morality All with the use of science and expert knowledge Intellectuals Offer New Social Views Thorstein Velben - The Theory of the Leisure Class William James – Pragmatism Herbert Croly – The Promise of American Life and the New Republic Jane Addams – Democracy and Social Ethics John Dewey – Democracy and Education Oliver Wendell Holmes – The Common Law conspicuous consumption truth comes from experience, not theorizing Call for an activist government Each individual’s well-being depends on the well-being of others The key institution for a more humane and cooperative social order was the public school (7 mil.- 23 mil.: 1870-1920) Law must evolve as society changes Novelists, Journalists, and Artists Spotlight Social Problems Frank Norris – The Octopus Theodore Dreiser – The Financier McClure’s and Collier’s Lincoln Steffens – Shame of the Cities Ida Tarbell – The History of Standard Oil Lewis Hines photographs Muckrakers California’s railroad vs. wheat farmers Tycoon who lacks social conscience Muckraking journalists Exposing city corruption Obvious Reforming the Political Process Samuel M. (Golden Rule) Jones of Toledo, OH Profit sharing in factories, playgrounds, free kindergarten, lodging for transients New styles of governing like the city manager system (many times changing after natural disasters) These new systems brought in experts to run the city like a business However, government changes sometimes reduced the power of the immigrant classes Electoral reform was popular Secret ballot direct primary initiative referendum Recall All of these weakened party loyalty and voter participation (individual activity decreases while interest group activity increases) Regulating Business, Protecting Workers J.P. Morgan’s U.S. Steel Company owned 80% of the nation’s production; he also had the one major farm-implement company, International Harvester Workers wages did increase from $532 to $687 by 1915 (annual wage) However, whole families had to work Average work day: 9 ½ hours 1907 – 4,534 railroad workers died; 3,000 miners Frederick Winslow Taylor’s Scientific Management focuses on efficiency: standardization Reformers felt that since business benefited from government’s high tariffs, government should regulate these businesses Wisconsin’s Robert “Fighting Bob” La Follette led the way Direct primary, railroad regulatory commission, increased corporate taxes, limited campaign spending, legislative reference library By 1907, thirty states had child labor laws 1903, Oregon limited the work-day of women to 10 hrs. Political bosses even got involved, especially after the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Making Cities More Livable By 1920, the urban population surpasses 20% There are campaigns for parks, streetlights, laws against billboards and electric wires Concern for public health (they had a socialclass agenda) Typhoid Mary (Irish cook) Infant mortality drops Antismoke campaign Progressivism and Social Control Self-righteous nature of the Progressive Movement (pitted native-born vs. immigrant) Alcohol Prostitution Mann Act (1910) – can’t transport a woman across state lines for “immoral purposes” Drugs Narcotics Act (1914) – also known as the Harrison Act, bans the distribution of morphine, cocaine, and other addictive drugs Immigration Restriction and Eugenics NW vs. SE Europeans Immigration Restriction League and the American Federation of Labor fear job competition and endorse restriction Literacy bills passed then vetoed repeatedly; overridden in 1917 Sterilization of “inferior” genetic stock Proposal: Eugenics gave a scientific justification to anti-immigrant sentiment Racism and Progressivism The Great Migration to the Northern cities 1.4 million African American in the North by 1920 Fed up in the South; growth of the cities; Birth of a Nation (glorifies the KKK); 75 lynchings occur yearly W.E.B. du Bois vs. Booker T. Washington 1905- Niagara Movement (meet annually and eventually form the NAACP) Revival of the Women’s Suffrage Movement 1910-Women can vote in WY, CO, UT, and ID Middle-class women upset that immigrant men can vote GB movement helped fuel U.S. women California campaign Municipal reforms, public-school issues Joined with labor leaders and male progressives 1911 – suffrage in CA “Organized Womanhood” however had limits Elite and middle-class women mostly National American Woman Suffrage Association Susan B. Anthony retires and Carrie Chapman Catt takes over They adopted the Winning Plan: grassroots organization with tight central coordination Lobbied legislatures, held parades, ran newspaper ads, put up posters, held fundraisers, arranged photo ops, distributed items emblazed with suffrage message 1917- NY approved a woman-suffrage referendum NAWSA membership was mostly white, native-born and middle class “Antis” Alice Paul (who studied the British approach) grew impatient with the state by state method She formed the Women’s Party She targeted the White House and the Democratic Party Accused Wilson of being a hypocrite Enlarging “Woman’s Sphere” Women were active in Progressive reforms (it was natural) Contraception and birth-control information were key issues 1914- Margaret Sanger began her crusade Her journal The Woman Rebel was “obscene” 1916- she opened the first birth control clinic 1921- founded the American Birth Control League Mary Ware Dennett’s The Sex Side of Life was declare obscene It was a pamphlet for youth She lobbied efforts to amend obscenity laws She argued that contraception should by free (Sanger thought you should have them prescribed) Workers Organize; Socialism Advances American Federation of Labor (AFL) grew to 4 million by 1920; but only in skilled trades and only 20% of the workforce Industrial Workers of the World (IWW; Wobblies), led by Big Bill Haywood; mostly western miners, lumbermen, fruitpickers and itinerant laborers Socialism gains followers End to capitalism Public ownership of factories, RR, utilities, communications systems 1900- Socialist Party of America The Masses – radical magazine Height was in 1912: Debs receives 900,000 votes National Progressivism Phase I: Roosevelt and Taft, 1901-1913 1905: La Follette goes to Washington as a Senator TR – cowboy, state assemblyman, New York City police commissioner, U.S. civil serviceman, Asst. Sec. of the Navy 1902 Pennsylvania Coal Strike: United Mine Workers Union; arbitration and the threat of a govt. takeover; miners get 10% wage increase and a reduction of hours to 9 Trustbusting Suit against the Northern Securities Company (5- 4 in favor of dissolution) He announced his “square deal” During his presidency, 43 antitrust lawsuits; Standard Oil is broken up and American Tobacco Company is reorganized During TR’s second term he turned to RR regulation Hepburn Act (1906) – set maximum RR rates and free passes; govt. could examine financial records Consumer Protection and Racial Issues Pure Food and Drug Act Meat Inspection Act Booker T. Washington to the White House Brownsville Incident Dishonorable discharge of three companies, without due process Rescinded in 1971 Environmentalism Progressive-Style 1891- 35 million acres of public lands for national forests had be set aside Boy Scouts formed in 1910; Girl Scouts in 1912 Gifford Pinchot (head of U.S. Forest Service) stresses conservation John Muir stresses preservation 1902- National Reclamation Act: water management in arid western regions; construction of dams and irrigation projects Newlands Act required farmers to repay the construction costs Antiquities Act (1906) - protected archeological sites TR helps create 53 wildlife reserves, 16 national monuments, and 5 national parks 1916- National Park Service set up Taft in the White House Running on a conservative ticket, he beats William Jennings Bryan Taft actually prosecutes more anti-trust cases than TR, but he doesn’t garner the publicity Reform turns to Congress and the Insurgents (La Follette is one) Payne-Aldrich Tariff makes them mad Ballinger-Pinchot Affair: makes matters worse TR returns and supports Insurgent Candidates in 1910 and proposes the New Nationalism Election of 1912 Taft (R), TR (Bull Moose Progressive), Wilson (D), and Debs (S) National Progressivism Phase II: Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1917 Tariff and Banking Reform Underwood-Simmons Tariff lowers rates by 15% Federal Reserve Act of 1913- 12 regional banks and the FRB Regulating Business; Aiding Workers and Farmers Federal Trade Commission Act – FTC is a watchdog Clayton Antitrust Act- listed actions that would bring a lawsuit such as price discrimination and exclusive dealings (was ineffective due to business links) Federal Highway Act – matching funds to states Keating Owen Act – banned from interstate commerce products manufactured by child labor (but declared unconstitutional) Progressivism and the Constitution Muller v. Oregon – women’s 10-hr. workday Louis Brandies was the first Jewish Supreme Court justice 16th Amendment – income tax 17th Amendment – direct election of Senators 18th Amendment – Prohibition 19th Amendment –Women’s right to vote Ch. 21 Notes Quiz 1. What were three goals of the Progressives? 2. What book did John Dewey write? Describe its content. 3. What was the significance of McClure's and Colliers? 4. What is a referendum? 5. What were the limits of the women’s suffrage movement? Give two (not just men didn’t like them) 6. Who opened America’s first birth control clinic?