Presidential election 1876 and the great compromise of 1877

Report
ARTICLE 2: EXECUTIVE BRANCH
• Congress role in election process
• When there is a vacancy in the presidency or a
potential tie, which house decides on the president?
• When there is a vacancy in the vice presidency, which
house decides on the vice president?
• Illustration of how this works.
BACKGROUND TO ELECTION OF 1876
• Civil War Results
• President Lincoln Assassination
• Reconstruction
• President Johnson Impeachment
• President Grant’s Administration corruption with
finances and railroads
CIVIL WAR
• After Civil War, federal troops occupied many areas in
the South
• Republican controlled Reconstruction governments in
many states
• South slow in rebuilding
• Rise of Ku Klux Klan in which thousands were violently
killed, particularly newly freed African Americans
• Goals of Klan:
• Destroy Republican Party
• Throw out Reconstruction Governments
• Aid planter class
• Prevent African Americans from exercising their
political rights
GRANT ADMINISTRATION 1868-1876
• Corruption and lack of confidence weakened
Republican Party
• Scandal over finances, railroads
• Grant’s appointees to the cabinet were considered
dishonest
• Vice president, private secretary and Secretary of War
destroyed Republican unity
• Harder to impose Reconstruction Plans
PANIC 1873-1875
• Depression and dispute over currency
• Financiers wanted to get rid of paper money issued
during the Civil War and back currency by gold
• Farmers and manufacturers wanted more paper
money, cheaper and helped pay off debts
• Took until 1879 for economy to improve
DESIRE FOR UNITY
• Reconciliation
• Reconstruction was failing in many areas
• Violence escalated in South
• African Americans denied civil and political rights
ELECTION CONCERNS
•
•
•
Ending
Reconstruction
African Americans
Unity of nation
•
•
Louisiana, South
Carolina and
Florida still
controlled by
Republican
Reconstruction
Government
South still
economically
deprived
RUTHERFORD HAYES AND SAMUEL TILDEN
• Both wanted to
end
Reconstruction
• Hayes was Civil
War hero
• Middle of the
road Republican
• Tilden Democrat
• Governor of New
York
• Believed in
Reform of
Reconstruction
policies
ELECTION RESULTS
• Needed 185
Electoral Votes
to win in 1876
• Tilden had won
the popular vote
4,300,000
• Hayes
4,036,000
• Outcome
depended on
Louisiana, South
Carolina and
Florida
• Republican
Reconstruction
governments
CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION COMMISSION
• January 1877 Congress formed Electoral Commission
• 8 Republicans
• 7 Democrats
• Democrats accused Republicans of constantly
reminding voters of Hayes’ Civil War experience
“waving the bloody shirt”
• Commission came up with Compromise in order for
Rutherford Hayes to become president
COMPROMISE OF 1877
•
•
•
•
Northern
Republicans
promised
Southern
Democrats:
one cabinet post
Federal patronage
Subsidiaries for
improvements in
South
•
•
Withdrawal of
Federal troops
from Louisiana
and South
Carolina
Southern
Democrats
supported Hayes
as president
RESULTS OF ELECTION OF PRESIDENT
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES
• Election brought unity of the nation after Civil War and
Reconstruction
• Hayes’ strict enforcement of law, holding other officials
responsible
• Selected cabinet based on experience and merit: one was an
ex-Confederate and another was a liberal
• Hayes not interested in politics, planned to serve one term
• Supported rebuilding of South and removal of federal troops
• Wanted a new Republican Party to take hold in the south with
support from businessmen and conservatives
• “Solid South” remained primarily Democratic until recent
times
RESULT OF COMPROMISE OF 1877
•
Hayes becomes
president by
winning electoral
vote 185 to 184
•
Tilden accepted
results
•
Died 1886 with
$6 million fortune
•
$2 million given
to start the New
York City Public
Library
RIGHTS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS
•
Hayes pledged rights of Negroes in South
•
Supported restoration of honest local selfgovernment
•
Many laws put into place limiting civil and political
rights of African Americans
•
Rights of African Americans reminded unresolved
•
Amendments 13, 14 and 15 stayed in the
Constitution
•
These amendments would be used for support in the
Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s
ELECTION OF 2000
Republican Presidential
nominee Governor
George W. Bush (TX)
VP nominee Senator
Richard Cheney (WY)
ELECTION 2000
Democrat Presidential
nominee Vice
President Al Gore
VP nominee Senator Joe
Lieberman (CT)
GROUP ACTIVITY/EXIT SLIP: WORKSHEET
PROJECT
• With your
• Group
partner answer
Discussion after
the questions
small group work
given to you
RESOURCES
Whitehouse.gov
u.s.history.com

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