America Moves to the City

• Why Unions---Wages/Hours/working
Conditions/workers rights
• “Labor was a commodity to be bought like any
other, cheaply as possible…employers ceased
to think of workers as people”
The Unions came from a series of problems
No long term employment guarantees
Long work days/weeks
Terrible working conditions---between 1880-1900 5
deaths per day.
• Business Cycle
• Trends: immigrants, women, and children greatly
expanded the work force. Machines replaced people.
Large bureaucratic corporations dominated the
American Economy. The development of national and
international markets for their goods.
The American Federation of Labor
• The NLU and Knights wanted OBU
• 1886 AFL Founded by Samuel Gompers with a new approach:
Unions should work within the existing system, gaining and
improving working conditions by bargaining with their employers.
• They would push for “closed shops”
• Collective Bargaining
• Strike as a final resort
• AFL set up rules to its members (locals)
• Training for their skills. No blacks, women or recent immigrants
could be members
• Regular Dues---in case of strikes
• 200,000 in 1886 1,750,000 in 1920
• This left the unskilled worker at risk.
America Moves to the City
As the cities grew between
1870 and 1900, how did they
change with regard to
buildings, transportation, and
accessibility? What problems
• 1870-1900 American Pop.
Doubled/tripled in the cities
• Cities grew up and out
• Louis Sullivan: Chi. 1885
• Walking cities to commuting
• Electricity->>trolleys
• Indoor Plumbing
• Jobs
• Dept. Stores/shoppers
Impure water
Dumbbell tenements
Jacob Riis: How The Other
Half Lives
• People move to Suburbs
• Immigrants convene in
inner ring of the cities
How did immigration shift in the 1880s? How was the
new wave different from those that came before? Why
did they come How did reformers attempt to help
immigrants settle in? What was the reaction of
Nativist? Explain
Before 188s from England and W. Europe
Germany, Scandinavia
Traditions of Rep. Government
After 1880s Southern and E. Europe
Push/Pull----no room in Europe/no employment
Displaced by industrialization
Birds of Passage/Chain Migration---wealth exaggerated by people seeking
cheap labor
• Tried to hold on to their cultures and customs
• Children: Americanized
How did churches address the immigration challenge?
Describe with regard to the religious revival at the
Urban Level and the practice of the Social Gospel
No system for assimilation
Political Bosses provided jobs, shelter in return for political support
Awareness of slums grew
Walter Rauschenbusch, Washington Gladden preached Social
Insisted Churches attack social problems
Jane Addams founded Hull House 1889: to teach skills , info needed
to succeed in America
Settlement Houses
Florence Kelly---women workers/child labor
• Many people worried that Churches’ avoidance of the plight
of the poor in the Cities meant that Satan was wining the
battle of good v. evil>>>>>Urban Revivalist
• Dwight Lyman Moody>>>Gospel of Kindness
• Moody Bible Institute
• 1889 Chicago
• Cardinal Gibbons>>>>American Unity
• Salvation Army
• Church of Christ, Scientist (Mary Baker Eddy) taught
Christianity heals sickness
• YMCA YWCA founded
How did Darwin and Modernist affect
thinking at this juncture?
• Old Immigrant v. New Immigrants----Germans and W.
Europeans looked down on Slavs, and Baltic peoples
• Feared Mixed blood w/ Anglo-Saxons
• “Native” Americans blamed immigrant for problems of the
• Trade unions hated them for willingness to work for less
wages and brining in dangerous doctrines….Socialism and
• APA: American Protective Association with Labor Leaders
sought to stop immigration.
• 1853 Charles Darwin On The Origins of Species
• Doctrine of evolution
Darwin and Modernist
• Doctrine of Evolution
• Modernist step away from fundamentalism
• Hard to believe in the face of science: Bible is
• Modern thought—departure from tradition,
Catholic movement to examine their
belief(bible) according to contemporary
criticism, philosophy and histotiography
Booker T. Washington
W.E.B. DuBois
• Ex-slave-headed a black
normal and industrial
school Tuskegee AL
• Avoided the issue of social
• George Washington Carver
• 1st Ph.D. Black from Harvard
• Demands complete equality
and action now
• Founded the NAACP in 1910
• Talented 10th
• Reflects real differences in
life between N. Black and
S. Blacks
• National American Women Suffrage Association
• Elizabeth Cady Stanton---1st Women’s Rights
Convention 1848
• Susan B. Anthony
• 1900-Carrie Chapman Catt
• WY Territory---vote
• The General Federation of Women’s Clubs-1895
• Ida B. Wells--NACW
Describe the effects of American’s
movement Westward on the Native
• Civil War’s impact on expansion: Delay—Plains Indians--few NEW States
• Dramatic Geography
• New Peoples to conquer
• Dry---treeless, flat different soil, plant life animals, etc.
• Less that 15” of rain---regular farming—out of the
• Iroquois Nation
• Buffalo
What Policies did US follow toward the
Indians as evidenced in Mid century
treaties How did Indians respond?
• American broken promises
• Indian Bureau Agent were corrupt
• Trappers, prospectors, hunters, outlaws seemed to answer to no
• Gold Rush
• Gov. officials drive off Arapaho, Cheyanne off promised lands
granted 10 yrs. earlier
• Cheyanne sue for peace
• Chief Black Kettle promised protection; ambushed by Col. John
Chivinton’s forces.
What was the Dawes Severalty Act and
how did it represent a shift in US policy
toward the Indians?
Authorized the breaking up of the reservations
Land too poor to farm
Indians are not farmers
Land held in trusts
4/5 defrauded of titles
Surplus land sold off
How did mining help settle the West?
• Primary wind falls 1804-1866---beaver pelts,
buffalo, gold..
• CA 1849-50 Gold, silver---Nevada too
• Gold/Silver—Idaho, CO MT SD WY
• Trend: ‘49ers in search of new mother lodes
• And a movement east/Comstock Lode
(Nevada) the huge bonanza of gold and Silver
How did Cattle Ranching help to settle
the West?
• Between the end of Indians & Buffalo +
farmers w/ barbed wire
• Cattle and open range grazing
• Harvest free grasses
• Eastern demand….national diet changes
• Railheads Abilene Wichita Dodge City
• Long Drives>>>Cowboys>>>cattletowns

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