Lynchings and Vigilantism

Report
Race, Place and Repertoire Change
in U.S. Lynching, 1830-1930
Richard Hogan
Paper presented at Social Science
History Association Meetings,
Vancouver, Canada, November 2012
Preliminaries
• The Problem: romanticizing Old West to
legitimate lynching as vigilantism
• The goal: rewrite Western and Southern
histories: interests and actors and epochs;
repertoire change and learning to lynch
Guiding Assertions
• Vigilantism is contentious gathering in defense of class
interests not adequately defended by local authorities
• Lynching tends to be confounded with vigilantism but
tends to differ
– Status versus class interests
– Public ritual of private justice
– Terrorize and torture “other”
• Both are Part of Old Repertoire
Old and New Repertoires of Contention in U.S., 1652-1996
Patronized
Orientation
To
Powerholders
anti-proprietor revolts: 1652-1691
militia rebellions: 1676-1691
festivals: Stamp Act of 1765
tax revolts: 1765-1794
OLD
food riots: 1713-1837
tenants’ rebellions: 1745-1766
squatters’ rebellions: 1782-1850
expulsion:1765-1861
slave rebellions: 1663-1860
boycotts: 1765-present
vigilantism: 1771-1865
cooperatives: 1870-present
LYNCHING 1830-1930
strike
NEW
Autonomous
election rally
public meeting
demonstration
social movement
National
Local
Scope of Action
Social Change in the U.S., 1620-1945
Colonial America: 1620-1765
Colonial Revolt: 1765-1815
National Period: 1815-1861
Revolutionary Period: 1861-1945
Consolidation and Increase in Scale: 1945-present
Two Simple Questions
• How and why does lynching emerge in 1830
as an alternative to frontier vigilantism,
plantation flogging, and paramilitary runaway
slave patrols?
• How and why does lynching change between
1830 and 1930?
Simple Answers
• Lynching is innovation at the margin of
vigilantism and terrorism
– Defense of class and status interests
– Inspired by political opportunities
– transformation of U.S. institutions, 1830-1930
• Specific form shaped by
– Nature of republican capitalism then and there
– Cultural baggage brought along
– Experience of institutional transformation
Simple Distinction
• Frontier Vigilantism
–
–
–
–
White men
Somewhat public meeting: gathering of citizens
Private posse, judge, jury, execution
Leave the body hanging to warn would-be outlaws
• Southern Lynching
–
–
–
–
white on black
Public spectacle of disguised members of KKK
No attempt to mimic due process
Torture and barbarism
The Messy Details of History
• There seem to be distinct vigilante and
lynching behaviors
– Vigilantism in West before 1876
– Lynching in South after 1890
• But these vary from State to State and seem
to converge over time
– vigilantism becomes more or less racial and
barbarous in general
– Before and after Civil War/Reconstruction
Data
• Michael Pfeifer, The Roots of Rough Justice (U. IL,
2011)
• Stephen J. Leonard, Lynching in Colorado (U. CO,
2002)
• Michael Pfeifer, Lynching Beyond Dixie (U. IL,
forthcoming)
• Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned
Lands, “Reports of Outrages” (Gov. Bullock’s
correspondence, GA archives, 1868)
Black Vigilante Lynching Victims Reported for
South, 1824-1862, by Date and Method (N=56)
Time
Burning
Hanging
Shooting
Unknown
N
1824-1849
67%
(12)
17%
(3)
11%
(2)
5%
(1)
18
1850-1862
37%
(14)
61%
(23)
-
(0)
3%
(1)
38
Total
46%
26
46%
26
4%
(2)
4%
(2)
56
Source: Pfeifer (2011), Appendix
Vigilante Lynching Victims from
Colorado, 1859-1919
Years
Victims
White Anglo (%)
1859-1865
28
25 (89%)
1866-1875
77
65 (84%)
1876-1885
59
48 (81%)
1886-1919
30
15 (50%)*
Total
194
153 (80%)
* Other victims included four blacks, one Chinese, five Italians, and five Mexicans.
Source: Leonard (2002), Appendix A
Lynching Outside South by Race 18371889 and 1890-1943 (N=578)
Race
1837-1889
Percent
1890-1943
N
Percent
Total
N
Percent
N
Black
9%
36
28%
45
14%
81
White
77%
321
61%
97
73%
418
Other
15%
61
11%
18
14%
79
Total
100%
418
100%
160
100%
578
Source: Pfeifer (forthcoming)
Lynching Outside South by Method
before 1890 and after 1889 (N=578)
Method*
Before 1890
Percent
After 1889
N
Percent
Total
N
Percent
N
Hanging
84%
351
66%
105
79%
456
Shooting
7%
31
14%
23
9%
54
Unknown
6%
24
8%
13
6%
37
Other
3%
12
12%
19
5%
31
100%
418
100%
160
10%
578
Total
* coded as most barbaric (in descending order: mutilation, burning, strangulation,
beating, flogging, hanging, shooting) when more than one method was used)
Source: Pfeifer (forthcoming)
Lynching by Race in Arizona and
Indiana
Race
Indiana
percent
Black
Arizona
N
Percent
N
27%
18
-
0
Latino
-
0
33%
19
Native American
-
0
7%
4
73%
48
60%
34
White
Total
Source: Pfeifer (forthcoming)
66
57
Lynching by Race in Arizona and
Indiana before 1877
Race
Indiana
percent
Black
Arizona
N
Percent
N
17%
4
-
0
Latino
-
0
76%
13
Native American
-
0
6%
1
83%
20
18%
3
White
Total
Source: Pfeifer (forthcoming)
66
17
Lynching by Race in Arizona and
Indiana after 1876
Race
Indiana
percent
Black
Arizona
N
Percent
N
33%
14
-
0
Latino
-
0
15%
6
Native American
-
0
8%
3
67%
28
78%
31
White
Total
Source: Pfeifer (forthcoming)
42
40
Lynching Victims by Region and State (N=578)
Region
Midwest
State
Total
IA
IL
IN
MI
MN
NB
ND
OH
SD
WI
Border South Total
AK
DE
N
298
61
45
66
7
22
30
10
28
12
17
5
3
2
Region
North East
West
Other
Source: Pfeifer (forthcoming)
State
Total
ME
NJ
NY
PA
Total
AZ
ID
MT
NV
OR
UT
WA
WY
HI
N
10
1
1
4
4
264
57
22
45
24
5
15
40
56
1
Taking Stock
• Antebellum Southern lynching moves toward
vigilantism (hanging)
• Non-South vigilantism moves toward lynching
(becomes racial and barbarous)
• Each State is different
– Indiana horse-thief protection towards KKK
– Arizona terrorist colonialism toward vigilantism
- Midwest and Western States vary
Lessons to Learn
• Variation across time and place makes validity
and reliability of estimates problematic
• Further we move from data the more
problematic this becomes
• So let’s get close to Georgia outrages
– Reported by Freedmen’s Bureau to Governor
– Covering January to November election of 1868
– Indicates mix of crimes, vigilantism, lynching
Crimes Imputed from Outrages Reported in
Georgia, January-November 15, 1868 (N=355)
Crime
Percent
N
Murder
28%
101
Beating
26%
91
Shooting
24%
85
Stabbing
7%
26
Whipping
5%
19
Shooting At
5%
17
Other*
5%
16
100%
355
Total
* “Other” includes threatening with weapon (5), kidnapping (4),
unknown (wounded: 3), hanging (not killed: 2), attempted murder (2)
Source: Bureau of Refugees, Freedman (1868)
Race of Perpetrator (N=425)
Race
percent
N
Black
6%
26
White
66%
280
Unknown
28%
119
100%
425
Total
Source: Bureau of Refugees, Freedman (1868)
Percent Arrested by Race of
Perpetrator (N=425)
Arrested
Race
Percent
Not Arrested
N
Percent
Total
N
Black
58%
15
42%
11
26
White
15%
41
85%
239
280
7%
8
93%
111
119
15%
64
85%
361
425
Unknown
Total
Source: Bureau of Refugees, Freedman (1868)
Percent Arrested by Race for Murders
(N=119)
arrested
race
Percent
not arrested
N
Percent
Total
N
Black
71%
12
29%
5
17
White
7%
4
93%
53
57
Unknown
11%
5
89%
40
45
Total
18%
21
82%
98
119
Source: Bureau of Refugees, Freedman (1868)
Rationale for Outrages (N=355)
Rationale
percent
N
Political
29%
103
Blank/missing
25%
87
Unknown
19%
67
Unprovoked
11%
39
Social
10%
35
7%
24
100%
355
Economic
Total
Source: Bureau of Refugees, Freedman (1868)
Deconstructing Outrages
• Outrages: 355 victimizations (and 425
perpetrators, including groups)
• Vigilantism: no arrest or other effort by
authorities to sanction the perpetrators
(N=302 victimizations)
• Lynching: murder by three or more
perpetrators, including groups (N=45
victimizations)
Predicting Contention and Elections
• ZINBE model predicts outrages, vigilantism,
and lynching
– Petit-Bourgeois artisans and farmers, black
schools, enduring Republican partisanship
mitigate against outrages
– slack resources and April vote for Republican
governor inspire outrages
• Outrages, vigilantism, and lynching should
tend to discourage November vote for U. S.
Grant
ZINBE Models Predicting Outrages, Vigilantism, and Lynching (N=120)
Predict Outrages
Predictor
Predict Vigilantism
Predict Lynching
Coeff.
s. e.
Coeff.
s. e.
Ceoff.
s.e.
Mfg/pop
-127.39*
65.121
-194.14**
80.62
-285.58**
130.66
Farms /pop
-19.39***
7.227
-19.91**
8.35
-7.52
13.17
Wealth/pop
4.86**
1.889
4.41**
2.11
5.76
4.66
Rep. Gov.
2.05*
1.065
2.12*
1.19
7.26***
2.72
U.S. Grant
-1.56*
.854
-2.08**
.960
-5.06***
1.88
BlkSchlKds
-.003**
.001
-.002*
.001
-.003
.004
Constant
1.494*
.851
1.59
.986
-2.11
1.89
Inflation Factor
Black Pop
-.000**
.000
-.001
.001
-.000*
.000
Constant
.825
.531
1.75*
1.02
-2.11
1.89
ϰ2=26.56***
* p<.1 ** p<.05 *** p<.01 (two tails)
ϰ2=24.90***
ϰ2=15.53**
OLS Models Predicting U. S. Grant Vote in November 1868 in
GA Counties, using Outrages, Vigilantism, or Lynching (N=129)
Outrages
Predictor
Vigilantism
Lynching
Coeff.
s. e.
Coeff.
s. e.
Coeff.
s.e.
farms/pop
-1.05**
.448
-1.06**
.444
-1.01**
.433
black/pop
-.932***
.282
-,914**
.281
-.870***
.280
blkpop2
1.17***
.358
1.15***
.357
1.07***
.357
cottonbelt
-.127***
.038
-.128***
.038
-.125***
.038
RepGovVt
.685***
.090
.689***
.090
.700***
.089
Ot/Vg/Lyn
-.003
.003
-.004
.003
-.020**
.010
.209**
.081
.205**
.081
.191**
.080
Constant
Adj. R2
.43***
* p<.1 ** p<.05 *** p<.01 (two tails)
.44***
.44***
So What?
• Validity: What is lynching (as opposed to
outrage or vigilantism)?
• Reliability: Racial violence by any other name?
• Significance
– Outrage and vigilantism as popular (racist and
patriarchal) justice
– Lynching as terrorism: the Radical Republicans
were right; the KKK did steal the election
Savannah Editor on KKK (7/1/1871)
deprecate
living
Savannah Editor (12/10/1870)
Questions?
• Thanks for your patience
• Y’all come back now, y’hear

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