High-Tech Materials & Technologies

Report
Professor
PhD student
Priit Kulu
Liina Lind
Outline
1. Introduction


advanced materials in different areas
trends & priorities
2. Advanced Materials




metals,
ceramics,
composites & hybrids,
carbon-family
3. Advanced materials technologies




powder technology,
casting,
forming,
machining
High-Tech Materials & Technologies
2
1. Introduction


advanced materials in different areas
trends & priorities
Advanced Materials
2.




metals,
ceramics,
composites & hybrids,
carbon-family
Advanced materials technologies
3.




powder technology,
casting,
forming,
machining
High-Tech Materials & Technologies
3
High-Tech (Advanced) Materials
High-Tech Materials & Technologies
4
Definition
 State-of-art materials and coatings
 Technology based on recent achievements in physics,
chemistry and biology
 Characterized by knowledge-intensity and process
complexity
 Involving first of all manufacturing of coatings and novel
ceramic & composite materials.
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Main material groups
 Metals & Alloys
Metals
Cermets
 Ceramics
Ceramics
MCM
CCM
 Polymers
Glass-ceramics
GCCM
Composites
PCM
FRG
Polymers
Glass
 Composites
MCM
CCM
PCM
GCCM
FRG
High-Tech Materials & Technologies
Metal composite materials
Ceramic composite material
Polymeric composite material
Glass-ceramic composite material
Fiber-reinforced glass
6
Materials in a passenger car
Polymers ~10%
ACORD report from 2001 and
BMW 7-series 2002-2008
 Weight % of metals is decreasing,
growing importance of polymers
Ferrous + non-ferrous
Polymers ~15%
Elastomers
4%
Thermosets
3%
Glass Fuel, oil 6%
1%
metals 68+8=76%
Others (textile
etc.) 3%
Passenger car compostion in 2001
[ACORD, Annual Report 2001]
Multimaterials
3%
Thermoplastics
8%
Metals 48+24=72%
Low-weight
metals and
alloys (Al-frame)
24%
Steel 48%
(high-strength
steel)
BMW 7-series 2002-2008
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Trends in aviation
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Materials in aviation
Materials used in
787 Dreamliner, Boeing
[Boeing AERO magazine 2006 boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/articles/qtr_4_06]
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Materials in medical applications
 Numerous
biocompatible materials
have found a place in
medical applications
 Hip joints
 Dental implants
 Heart valves
etc.
Ceramic
(Ti-alloy)
Biocompatible
coating
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Materials in building and mechanical
engineering
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Historical ages of materials
Cu (COPPER)
STONE
BRONZE
1
STONE, WOOD
2
COPPER, IRON
3
POLYMERS
4
IRON
POLYMERS
CERAMICS
(STONE)
TAILORED MATERIALS
(composite materials)
High-Tech Materials & Technologies
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Materials R&D directions (European Technology
Platform)
 metallic structural materials &
metal-matrix composites (MMC),
 non-metallic structural materials (ceramics) &
ceramic-matrix composites (CMC),
 polymers & polymer-matrix composites,
 multimaterials (e.g. hybrids),
 conductive and magnetic materials,
 biomaterials,
 packaging materials,
 lifecycle planning and reuse of materials
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Main trends (1)
 Growing applications for ceramics, polymers and
composites
→ use of metals is decreasing
 Growing multidisciplinary
collaboration
(e.g. physics, chemistry, biology)
→ synthesis and processing
of new materials
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Main trends (2)
 Sustainable development
 Sustainable
technologies
GRAPHICAL EXAMPLE FROM
Mitsubishi Electric Group
Environmental Vision 2021
in other words:
REDUCE
REUSE
RECYCLE
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Priorities of R&D (1)
1.
Weight reduction
2.
Low cost
3.
High-temperature
applications
4.
Biocompatibility
(for implants)
5.
Multifunctionality and intelligence
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Priorities of R&D (2)
6.
Bioinspired materials
– learning from nature
Field known as: biomimetics, bionics,
biomimicry
Materials with
lotus-leaf effect
Velcro inspired from burdock
Shark-skin inspired Speedo fastskins
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Priorities of R&D (3)
7. Computational
simulating
(e.g. Stress, crack propagation and
molecular dynamics in
nanoscience)
A three-dimensional model reproducing crack shapes.
The colors indicate the strength of local tensile stress.
The crack opening is exaggerated 100 times.
Intricate crack shape typical of stress
corrosion cracking
High-Tech Materials & Technologies
Itakura et al. (2005) Phys. Rev. E, 71
18
Priorities (4)
Down-sizing (e.g. Moore’s law)
...and sizing up (selfassembly is very common in biological
8.
systems)
THE NUMBER OF TRANSISTORS PER CHIP
DOUBLE EVERY 18 MONTHS
Scheme of the self-assembly of
the Tobacco Mosaic Virus
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Introduction
1.


advanced materials in different areas
trends & priorities
2. Advanced Materials




metals,
ceramics,
composites & hybrids,
carbon-family
Advanced materials technologies
3.




powder technology,
casting,
forming,
machining
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Advanced metallic materials
Metallic materials with
superior properties
Structural alloys
Mg- and Al-alloys with superior
properties, Al-metaglass, foams
Superconductive NbTi, Nb3Sn, Nb3Ge
Neodymium rare-earth magnets (alloys
of Nd, Fe and B) are strongest known
permanent magnets. Sm-Co magnets
Ti-alloys with thermomechanical
properties, superalloys, maraging steels,
intermetallides, high-density alloys,
shape-memory alloys
Biocompatible Ti-alloys
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Amorphous alloys with chemical and
thermal properties, Ni- and Fe
aluminates
21
Advanced ceramic materials
Oxidation resistant,
chemically inert,
electrically insulating,
generally low thermal conductivity,
Manufacturing:
alumina – slightly complex & low cost,
zirconia – more complex & higher cost
Oxide ceramics
alumina, zirconia (Al2O3)
Low oxidation resistance,
chemically inert,
electrically conducting,
high thermal conductivity,
extreme hardness
Manufacturing:
Difficult & high cost
Non-oxide ceramics
carbides, borides, nitrides,
silicides (Si3N4, SiC, B4C)
Composites
particulate reinforced,
combinations of oxides
and non-oxides
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Advanced ceramic materials
Special oxide ceramics
Electroceramics
Optical ceramics
Non-oxide structural/tool
ceramics
Mechanical and thermal properties
Chemical and thermal properties
Magnetic ceramics
Radiation resistance
Biocompatible ceramics
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Ceramics for tools and parts
 Oxides: SiO2, AlO3, ZrO2, MgO-based
mullite (3Al2O3*2SiO2)
 Carbides: WC, Cr3C2, TiC, SiC, SiC, TiC – SHS process (e.g.
Si&C or Ti&C compounds)
 Nitrides: Si3N-based, AlN
 Composites:
Ti(C,N), SiAl(OH) (sialon)-based
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Toughness-hardness of ceramics
Property
Type of ceramic
,
kg/m3
HV*,
GPa
K1C,
MPa*m0,5
WC
15800
24
6
Si3N4 (hot-pressed)
3200
16
5
Si3N4 (reactive
3200
8
22
2700
6
0,7
sintered)
SiO2 (quartz)
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Strength – toughness of ceramics
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Metallic-ceramic tool and structural
materials
Carbide-steels and -alloys
 Ferro-TiC
Steel (50 - 70)% -TiC
 Double reinforced MMC
(Cr-steel + 20%VC) + 20%WC
 Self-fluxing alloys
NiCrSiB +  50% (WC-Co)
 TiC-NiMo – (50 - 60)% (NiMo)(2:1) 920 – 1620 HV10
 Cr3C2-NiCr – (50 - 60)% NiCr
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Metallic-ceramic tool materials
Some examples of carbide cermets
 WC-Co – (6 - 30)% Co (hardmetals) 890 - 1430 HV10
 Cr3C2-Ni – (10 - 30)% Ni
880 - 1360 HV10
 TiC-Ni-Mo – (30 - 40)% NiMo(2:1) 920 - 1260 HV10
 TiC-steel – (30 - 40)% austenitic/martensitic steel,
1050 - 1350 HV30
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Hardness-toughness of materials
1. CERAMICS
3
2
Hardness
1
2. WHITE CAST IRON
3. CERMETS
4
5
6
4. METAL MATRIX
COMPOSITES (MMC)
5. TOOL STEELS
6. CARBON AND
STAINLESS STEELS
Toughness
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Advanced composites
Special purpose
Structural / tool
Electrocomposites (PM, CM)
Mechanical properties (PM, CM)
Optical (PM)
Thermomechanical properties
(CM, CaM, MM)
Biocompatible (CaM, PM, CM)
Radiation resistance (CM, CaM)
PM – polymer matrix
MM – metal matrix
CM – ceramic matrix
CaM – carbon matrix
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Typical structures of composites
Particle
reinforced
Short fibre
reinforced
Continuous
Sandwich-type
fibre reinforced
Coated
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Typical structures of coatings
Mono
Multilayer
Composite
Gradient
Atomic layer
Duplex
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Coating thickness and process temperatures
of selected coating technologies
[Reference]
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Carbon based materials
Carbon family
 graphite,
 diamond,
 fullerens,
 carbon nanofibers (CNF) & tubes (CNT),
 diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings
34
Working temperature of various structural
materials
Specific strength
Heat-resistant
TMT alloys
Ti-composites
Superalloys
Titanium
Not heat-resistant
Monocrystals
Force-crystallized eutectic
fast-hardened alloys
Ceramics
/graphite
Graphite
TiAl alloys
Sintered alloys
Al- alloy composites
High-melting-point alloys
Operating temperature (°C)
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Processing methods for selected materials
Material system
Form of material
Processing method
Metal-ceramic
Bulk
Casting, spraying,
sintering, SHS
Metal-polymer
Coating
Thermal spraying, PVD,
CVD
Ceramic-polymer
Fibre
Metal-ceramicpolymer
Powder
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Deposition, grinding,
spraying
36
Introduction
1.


advanced materials in different areas
trends & priorities
Advanced Materials
2.






metals,
ceramics,
composites,
carbon-family,
hybrids,
intelligent materials
3. Advanced materials technologies




powder technology,
casting,
forming,
machining
High-Tech Materials & Technologies
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Material technologies
 Production of materials,
 Processing of materials,
 Manufacturing of products
Advanced materials technologies
 Powder technologies
 Casting
 Forming
 Machining
 Rapid Prototyping
 Joining technologies
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Powder technology in materials engineering
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Powder metallurgy (PM)
Associated primarily with automotive industry →
(e.g. in 2004 an average car in USA
had 19,5 kg of PM details
new engines  12 kg of PM details)
Powders – prealloyed powders,
fine dopants – Ni (1 – 2) m
Technologies – powderforging (PF),
e.g connecting rods
Materials -   7,75 g/cm3 – gears
 PM details  replace mechanically
processed and moulded
details
 PM Al- and Ti-alloys replace casting and forging
High-Tech Materials & Technologies
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PM/HIP
Powder Metallurgy / High Isostatic Pressing
Advantages:
• Very fine microstructure and isotopic properties
1. Inert gas atomizing
 enables UT,
to produce powder
insucseptible to hydrogen
brittleness (HISC)
• others
 close to “product-shape”,
 flexible construction,
 good mechanical properties,
 small series
2. Sheet metal capsules
are filled with the powder
3. The capsules are subjected to high
isostatic pressure and high temperature
to obtain full density
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SF /HIP
Similar to PM/HIP, slab
formation by spraying
methods
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Processing of hybrid materials
100%
ceramics
100%
metal
valu
SD
TS
HIP
SPS
SHS
* SD – Spray Deposition; HIP – High Isostatic Pressing; SHS – Selfpropagated
High-temperature Synthesis; SPS – Spray Plasma Sintering
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Comparison of processing technologies of
hybrid materials
Casting
SD
HIP
SHS
SPS
Particle
size, m
Large
500-1200
<1500
<300
<300
Shape
Unlimited
Limited
Somewhat
limited
Limited
Limited
Ceramic %
5-15
<15-20
100
40-100
0-100
Microstr.
Coarse
Fine
Fine
Fine
Fine, nano
Strength %
98-100
95-100
100
96-99
98-100
Finishing
Blasting,
polishing
-
Polishing
Polishing
Grinding,
polishing
* SD – Spray Deposition; HIP – High Isostatic Pressing; SHS – Selfpropagated
High-temperature Synthesis; SPS – Spray Plasma Sintering
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Comparison of material groups
produced with different methods
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Comparison of different technologies
HVOF
 porosity
 dopants for increasing
toughness
 grain size
SD
- % of hard phase
- fine structure
- good strength
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Al2O3-Ni
WC-Co
Al2O3-ZrO2 (mulliit??)
Al2O3-SiC
 -fraction
 20...30
47
Casting trends (USA 2002-2009)
Main industry – car manufacturing (35%)
pipelines, drainage (15%)
mining/oil industry (6%)
Use of Al in cars, %
1. Engine block
2002
30
2006
62
2009
74
2. Wheels (rims)
70
78
80
3. Breaks
5
18
25
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Types of casting
 investment casting
 casting with gasified
models
 casting with soluble
models
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Casting using RT produced moulds
Z Cast-process
Producing of moulds by 3D
printing using polymer
or metallic powders.
High-speed production of
Al- and non-ferrous
castings with low price
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Forming
Bulk forming
 TMT
 PM/HIP
 SPD – Severe Plastic
Deformation (grain
refinement by very large
deformation rates)
 ECAP –
Equal Channel Angular
Pressing
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High Pressure Torsion (HPT)
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Sheet forming
 Sheet forming in superplastic state (SPF-process) (> Trecrystallication,
possibility to achieve large deformation values with one process,
1000 - 3000%)
 High-energy rate-forming (HERF-process) also known as highvelocity forming (HVF) (at high speed, no elastic after-effect)
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Machining technology
Integration of various cutting technologies
into machining centres.
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High precision tools for microcutting,
laserforming and welding
3D-model of mold insert
Sliced 3D-model
Laser welding nozzle
Laser welded part from stellite
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Comparison of high- and ultra-precision
cutting technologies
Detail
High-precision
Ultrahigh-precision
Accuracy
< 1 m
Submicron
Roughness, Ra
~ 10 nm
~ 1 nm
Processing
2D and 3D
2D
Production scale
Long-run
Short-run, 1-5 pc
No limitations,
primarily steels
Non-ferrous metals,
crystalline materials,
semiconductors
Materials
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Intelligent tools
 Measuring process temperatures during processing
 High-precision cutting e.g.
 intelligent drilling /milling with programmable radial axis
 surface processing with a computer numerical control
(CNC) tool
 high-precision drilling (accuracy 1 m) with punctual feedrate, high L/d ratio
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Hard coatings in tooling
• traditional (Ti, Al)N –
 HV 25 – 38GPa,
 hardness in elevated
temperatures,
heat-resitance,
thermal conductivity
• multilayered
• alloyed
• nanostructured
Nanostructured coatings
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Rapid prototyping (RP)
CAD  product (without
machining)
RP uses virtual designs from
CAD or animation
modeling software and
transformes into thin,
virtual, horizontal crosssections and “glues” them
together layer by layer to
form a prototype.
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Technologies of RP and base materials
Prototyping technology
Base materials
Selective laser sintering
Thermoplastics,
metal powders
Fused deposition modeling
Themoplastics,
eutectic metals
Stereolithography
Photopolymer
Laminated object manufacturing
Electron beam melting
3D printing
Paper
Titanium alloys
Various materials
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Rapid tooling (RT)
Enables producing casting moulds for complex-shaped
parts (lower cost, faster manufacturing)
Producing of moulds by 3D
printing using polymer
or metallic powders.
High-speed production of
Al- and non-ferrous
castings with low price
Rapid manufacturing (RM)
Enables production of end-products i.e. finished parts
(sheet forming)
 it will never replace the mass production technologies
(injection and die casting, sheet stamping);
 used mostly for production of parts with unique design
(average – 2 pcs; total in 2001 – 1,72 million parts).
Additive Manufacturing
Source: I. Gibson, D. W. Rosen, B. Stucker, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing. Springer, 2010.
Example: housings for electronic devices
Example: Architectural models
Specific processing / manufacturing
technologies




Electroerosion process
Electrochemical surface treatments
Ultrasonic process
Concentrated energy flow processes
 electron beam
 laser
 plasma
 Water jet (abrasive)
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Water & laser cutting
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TUT materials engineering web-site: www.ttu.ee/mti
[email protected]

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